Задание 6.2. Заполните пропуски, выбрав для начала предложения there is или there are.
1. … a big map on the wall. 2. … a teacher’s table and 5 desks in the classroom. 3. … a few chairs in the classroom. 4. … no pub near here. 5. … a lot of people in the park in the evening.
Задание 6.3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
How many higher educational establishments are there in your city? 2. How many students are there in your group? 3. What is there on the walls in your classroom? 4. Is there a bookcase in the classroom? 5. Are there any shelves in your classroom? 6. Are there any books on the desks?
Задание 7.1. Переведите предложения на английский язык. Правильность перевода проверьте по ключу. Назовите видовременную форму каждого сказуемого.
уже 20 минут
Он прочитал эту книгу.
с 2-х часов
Я уже написал письмо.
в 2 часа
Мы уже пообедали.
Задание 7.2. Раскройте скобки, выбрав соответствующую форму глагола-сказуемого.
а) в Present Simple:
1. They (listen, listens) to the news every day. 2. Mr. Hyde (have, has) a house of his own. 3. The boy (play, plays) football very well. 4. Mother (cook, cooks) very well. 5. We usually (watch, watches) TV in the evening. 6. My parents (get up, gets up) early in the morning. 7. I (like, likes) to see soap-operas on TV. 8. (Do, does) you live in a big town? 9. (Do, does) he help his parents about the house? 10. (Do, does) they have a car?
б) в Present Continuous:
1. Jane (is watching, are watching, am watching) TV now. 2. We (am working, are working, is working) in the garden now. 3. It is 7 p.m. They (am having, is having, are having) supper. 4. I (am learning, are learning, is learning) the new words at the moment. 5. He wants to speak English fluently. He (am taking, are taking, is taking) an English course.
в) в Present Perfect:
1. I (have read, has read) this article. 2. I (have been, has been) to Italy. 3. You (have translated, has translated) the text. 4. Jack (have had, has had) dinner. 5. They (have not been, has not been) to this museum.
Задание 7.3. Дополните предложения, выбрав соответствующие обстоятельства времени из правой колонки. Укажите, как называются видовременные формы сказуемых данных предложений.
1. She is watching TV
a) right now
b) for two days
c) every day
3. She has been watching TV
a) every week
b) since 2 o’clock
c) right now
2. She watches TV
a) since morning
c) every day
4. She has watched TV
c) on Sundays
Задание 7.4. Заполните пропуски, выбрав из предлагаемых вариантов подходящую по смыслу форму глагола.
1) Where is Mike? He … football.
2) He … football nearly every weekend.
3) He … football for 2 years already.
a) is playing
b) has been playing
Задание 7.5. Раскройте скобки, употребив сказуемое в одном из времен группы Present.
1. My brother (learn) English at school. 2. He (learn) English since the fifth form. 3. I (learn) English. Don’t bother me. 4. I (learn) the poem by heart. Test me. 5. We (buy) a car lately. Now we (learn) to drive. 6. It (be) winter now. It (be) cold. It (snow) since morning. 7. Put on your warm jacket. It (snow) a lot in winter. 8. I (feel) better today. 9. The film (consist) of 2 parts. 10. It (be) 11 a.m. We (have) tea.
Задание 7.6. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. He works 7 hours a day. 2. He has been working here for several years. 3. I’ve known him for nearly 20 years. 4. She is still working in the garden. 5. When is she coming? 6. – What are you doing tonight? – We are going to the theatre. 7. Ann has never been to the USA. 8. Mr. Black usually drinks coffee in the morning, but this morning he is drinking tea. 9. My aunt is coming today. I’m going to meet her. 10. Have you ever been abroad? 11. Look! There are a lot of pools outdoors. It has been raining. 12. Your eyes are red. You have been crying, haven’t you? 13. Mary wants to speak English fluently. She is talking a special English course for adults.
Задание 8.1. Задайте к каждому предложению общий, альтернативный и разделительный вопросы, а также специальные вопросы к каждому члену предложения.
1. Mr. Johnson is the chief account. 2. My farther has been working for a bank for 5 years. 3. I’ve seen this film.
Задание 9.1. Соотнесите видовременные формы глагола с характеризующими их названиями.
1) had been Ving
2) Ved, V2
3) was (were) Ving
Задание 9.2. Выберите из правой колонки соответствующий перевод приведённых ниже английских видовременных форм глагола.
2) was painting
3) had been painting
4) had painted
5) has painted
a) рисовал (вчера)
b) уже рисовал (в течение какого-то времени, когда что-то произошло)
c) рисовал вчера (в 7 часов, весь день)
d) нарисовал (вчера к 7 часам вечера)
e) нарисовал (уже)
Задание 9.3. Переведите предложения. Правильность перевода проверьте по ключу.
1. Я написала письмо вчера.
2. Я написала письмо только что.
3. Я написала письмо до того, как пришла мама домой.
a). I wrote a letter yesterday.
b). I’ve just written a letter.
c). I had written a letter before Mom came home.
4. Я писала письмо, пока он читал книгу.
5. Я писала письмо, когда он пришёл домой.
6. Я писала письмо уже час, когда он пришёл домой.
d). I was writing letter while he was reading a book.
e). I was writing a letter when he came home.
f). I had been writing a letter for an hour when he came home.
7. Я прочитал это письмо (т.е. знаю его содержание).
8. Я прочитал это письмо вчера (час назад).
9. Я прочитал это письмо до того, как ты позвонил мне.
g). I’ve read the letter.
h). I read the letter yesterday (an hour ago).
i). I had read the letter before you telephoned me.
Задание 9.4. Ответьте на вопросы.
а) What were you doing at this time yesterday? What were you doing when they came home? What were you doing while your Mom was cooking?
b) What did you do yesterday?
c) What had you done by 5 o’clock last night? What had you done before your children returned home?
d) What had you just done?
Задание 9.5. Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную видовременную форму глагола.
1. She (go) Australia but now (come) back to Britain again. 2. He (lose) his key but now he (find) it. 3. (You/visit) many museums when you were in Paris? 4. The car looks very clean. (you/wash) it? 5. When I (arrive) at the party, Tom (be/not) there. He (go) home. 6. We (walk) along the road for about 20 minutes when a car stopped and the driver (offer) us a lift. 7. The woman was a complete stranger to me. I (see) before. 8. Bob: Hello, Susan. Is Alan here? Susan: No, I’m afraid he (go) out. Bob: Oh, what a pity! When exactly (he/go) out? Susan: About ten minutes. 9. The phone (ring) when I (have) shower. 10. When I (arrive) Ann (wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me because I was late and she (wait) for a very long time. 11. My bicycle isn’t here any more. Somebody (take) it. 12. Last night I (arrive) home at half past twelve, I (have) a bath and then I (go) to bed. 13. I tried to catch Tom, but I couldn’t. He (run) very fast. 14. This time last year I (live) in Brazil. 15. It (rain) when I (get) up.
Задание 10.1. Определите видовременную форму сказуемого в следующих предложениях. Переведите их на английский язык. Правильность перевода проверьте по ключу.
1. Мы переведём этот текст завтра (скоро).
2. Мы переведём этот текст завтра к трём часам.
3. Мы переведём этот текст к тому времени, когда придёт учитель.
4. Мы будем переводить этот текст завтра в 3 часа.
5. Мы будем переводить этот текст завтра с 3 до 4.
6. Мы будем переводить этот текст завтра в это время.
7. Когда ты придёшь, я буду переводить этот текст.
8. Когда ты придёшь, я буду переводить этот текст уже час.
9. Когда ты придёшь, я (всё ещё) буду переводить этот текст.
a). We will/shall translate this text tomorrow (soon).
b). We will/shall have translated this text by 3 o’clock tomorrow.
c). We will/shall translate this text by the time the teacher comes back.
d). We will/shall be translating this text at 3 o’clock tomorrow.
e). We will/shall be translating this text at 3 till 4 o’clock tomorrow.
f). We will/shall be translating this text at this time tomorrow.
g). When you come, I will/shall translate this text.
h). When you come, I will/shall have been translating this text for an hour.
i). When you come, I will/shall be translating this text.
Задание 10.2. Раскройте скобки, употребив сказуемое в нужной видовременной форме.
1. This time next week I (have) a lovely time. 2. I (know) the results in a week. 3. I’ll come at 3 p.m. – Good. I (expect) you. 4. When I get home my dog (sit) at the door waiting for me. 5. I hope you (stay) at home tomorrow. 6. By the end of next year I (be) here for 25 years. 7. I’ll still be here next summer but Tom (leave). 8. You (recognize) her when you see her. She (wear) a yellow hat. 9. I (finish) this book by tomorrow evening. 10. Tom (not/pass) his examination. He hasn’t done any work for it. 11. We are late. I expect the film (already/start) by the time we get to the cinema. 12. Ann (probably/arrive) at about 8 o’clock. 13. I think Tom (like) the present you bought for him. 14. At 8.30 this evening we (study). 15. By the end of this year I (work) here for 10 years.
Задание 10.3. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в Present Simple или Future Simple.
1. The old man doesn’t go out in winter. He (go) out when the weather (got) warmer. 2. She is flying to Rome tomorrow. She (send) her family a telegram as soon as (arrive). 3. You (be) late if you (not/take) a taxi. 4. Wait until I (come) back. 5. If he (not/run)he (not/catch) the train. 6. If you (think) it over you (see) that I’m right.
11. Страдательный залог ( Passive Voice)
В английском языке глагол имеет два залога: the Active Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог), который употребляется в тех случаях, когда объект действия более важен для говорящего, чем исполнитель (субъект) этого действия, причём, последний может даже не упоминаться.
Somebody built this house in 1825. (active)
This house was built in 1825. (passive)
Everybody listened the speakers very attentively. (active)
The speakers were listened to very attentively. (passive)
Страдательный залог (the Passive Voice) образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола be в нужном времени и третьей формы смыслового глагола.
be + V III ф.
При изменении видовременной формы изменяется только вспомогательный глагол be! Форма смыслового глагола во всех временах страдательного залога остаётся неизменной.
Задание 11.1. Определите видовременную форму сказуемого и переведите предложения на русский язык.
Many houses are
The house is being
The house has been
The house was
The house was being
The house had been
The house will be
The house will have been
: built every year
: built now
: built (for) 3 years
: built last year
: built when I came here
: built when we arrived in this city
: built in a year
: built by the end of the month
Задание 11.2. Соотнесите английские и русские формы.
1) is read
2) is being read
3) has been read
4) was read
5) will be read
6) will have been read
7) had been read
a) будут читать
b) прочитают (к какому-то времени)
c) читают (вообще)
d) читают (сейчас)
e) прочитали (уже)
f) прочитали (вчера, в прошлом году)
g) прочитали (до того, как что-то произошло; к какому-то определённому времени)
Задание 11.3. Форму действительного залога преобразуйте в соответствующую форму страдательного залога:
is asking, have translated, has been doing, translated, read, will send, was planting, write.
Задание 11.4. Раскройте скобки, выбрав сказуемое либо в действительном, либо в страдательном залоге.
1. The police (have arrested, have been arrested) three men. 2. Three men (have arrested, have been arrested) by the police. 3. They (are building, are being built) a new ring-road round the city. 4. A new ring-road round the city (is building, is being built). 5. They (will change, will be changed), the date of the meeting. 6. The date of the meeting (will change, will be changed).
Задание 11.5. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя страдательный залог (исполнителя действия можно не указывать, если в этом нет необходимости).
1. They will build a stadium here in future. 2. The fire has done a lot of damage. 3. A friend of mine has invited me to a birthday party. 4. Nobody asked me to call back. 5. They were looking for the lost key everywhere. 6. They will have built the bridge by July 20.
Задание 11.6. Переведите на русский язык.
1. Dinner is being cooked. Wait a little. 2. I’m afraid we’re being waited for. 3. Don’t you see that you’re being laughed at? 4. The film is still being shown. 5. Don’t talk so loudly. We’re being listened to. 6. Everything has been settled. 7. He’s been offered a good job. 8. Don’t bother. The texts have been translated. 9. Nothing has been done. 10. The letters have been translated for an hour. 11. The problem has been discussed since he left. 12. The letter had been delivered by 7 o’clock. 13. The articles hadn’t been looked through by that time. 14. I was told that the doctor had been sent for. 15. The things have been packed. 16. The house will have been built by the end of the year. 17. The plan was been discussed when he came. 18. The mail hadn’t been looked through by that time. 19. I told you that the film was still being shown. 20. The children were allowed to stay up as long as the adults.
Задание 11.7. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в соответствующей видовременной форме и залоге.
1. That church (look) very old. When (it/build)? 2. Where’s my bicycle? He has gone! It (steal). 3. A tree (lie) across the road. It (blow) down. 4. Your car might (steal) if you (leave) the key in it. 5. The new hotel (open) next year. 6. Everything (arrange) in good time. 7. We (ask) him to take part in our conference. 8. The problem (solve) in future. 9. Nothing has been done. 10. They (already/send) for the doctor. 11. The plans (change). 12. Your proposals (still/discuss). 13. This church (make) of wood. 14. You (want) on the phone.
Задание 12.1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на согласование времен.
1. I thought you spoke Russian. 2. The speaker said it was a historic discovery. 3. I was sure you knew everything. 4. We didn’t know they were still having talks. 5. I thought they hadn’t received our letter yet. 6. The director hoped that the film would be a success. 7. She thought we were waiting for her. 8. He said he would phone us as soon as he got to London.
Задание 12.2. Поставьте сказуемое главного предложения в прошедшее время. Сделайте соответствующие изменения в придаточном предложении.
I think I know it.
I thought I knew it.
1. They say the hotel is a mile from the shore.
2. They write they are going to the south coast of Spain for their holidays.
3. He knows we have similar views on the problem.
She says she heard it on the radio.
She said she had heard it on the radio.
1. I think he recognized me.
2. She says she didn’t see it.
3. He knows she didn’t say that.
I hope you have settled it.
I hoped you had settled it.
1. She thinks she has lost the key.
2. She says she has never thought of that.
I’m sure everything will be all right.
I was sure everything would be all right.
1. He says we’ll have a short rest when we get to the river.
2. Everybody understands the new project will be very expensive.
Задание 13.1. Передайте высказывания в косвенной речи.
1. She says,” I’ll join you in a minute”. 2. He said, “I am absolutely sure”. 3. He said to us, “The project will be financed by several companies”. 4. The manager said to the interviewers, “The construction has been completed in record time”. 5. The air hostess says, ”The plane is landing”.
Задание 13.2. Переведите высказывания в косвенную речь.
1. I said to Jack, “Please, give me your dictionary”. 2. The doctor said to the sick man, “Don’t go back to work for a fortnight”. 3. The old man said to the little girl, “Don’t make so much noise”. 4. She said to the children, “Don’t make so much noise”. 5. “Please switch it on”, he said to me.
Задание 13.3. Передайте высказывания в косвенной речи.
1. “How much time is left?” he asked. 2. She asked, “How far is the bus stop?” 3. I saw a cloud of smoke and asked, «What is burning?” 4. The policeman asked me, “Where did you lose your wallet?” 5. The teacher came into the classroom and asked the boys, “What are you doing?” 6. I asked Bob, “Why didn’t you answer my letter?” 7. Jack’s father asked him, “Whom are you writing a letter to?”
Задание 13.4. Передайте высказывания в косвенной речи.
1. I asked the old gentleman, “Are you feeling tired?” 2. The hotel manager asked the visitors, “Did you sleep well?” 3. The teacher asked me, “Do you understand the question or not?” 4. The teacher asked him, “Do you spell “swimming” with “m” or a double “m”?”
Общие и альтернативные вопросы обычно вводятся следующими глаголами и оборотами:
I wonder … Интересно …
I should like to know … Хотелось бы знать …
Could you tell me … Скажите…
Would you mind telling me … Будьте любезны сказать мне …
Задание 13.5. Переведите на русский язык. В скобках напишите слова, раскрывающие характеристику действия (сейчас, давно, вчера и т.д.)
– wrote stories
– was writing a story
– had been writing stories
He said that he – had written a story
– would write a story
– would be writing stories
– would have written a story
Найдите соответствия этим предложениям:
– пишет рассказ (сейчас)
– пишет рассказы (вообще)
– написал (только что, вчера)
Он сказал, что – пишет (уже давно, с какого-то времени)
– будет писать (завтра в 6 часов)
– напишет (к какому-то времени)
– напишет (когда-нибудь)
Задание 13.6. Передайте высказывания в косвенной речи.
1. “We have a lift but very often it doesn’t work”, they said. 2. “We have moved into our new flat”, said my aunt. 3. “Nothing grows in my garden. It never gets any sun”, she said. 4. “Who put salt in my coffee?” he asked. 5. “Why did you travel first class?” I asked him. 6. “Don’t argue with you father”, I said. 7. “Please don’t leave the gate open”, the farmer said to visitors. 8. “Don’t climb that tree in your new trousers, Richard”, his father said. 9. “Did they understand what you said to them”, he asked. 10. The old lady asked, “Is this my seat?” 11. “I’m busy”, he asked. 12. “Please make yourselves comfortable”, she said to us. 13. He said, “I must go and make some calls”. 14. She said, “It may be true”. 15. When I met him last week, he said, “I’ll call on you tomorrow”. 16. “What are you looking for”, he asked the boy. 17. “Shall I repeat it?” he asked. 18. “Have you heard the news?” she asked me. 19. She asked me, “Are you hungry?” 20. She asked the doctor, “Shall I follow a strict diet?” 21. He said to Jim, “I’ll be writing my report at two o’clock tomorrow”. 22. The boy said to his mummy, “Don’t worry I’ll have learned the poem by heart by 5 o’clock”.
Задание 14.1. Определите функцию ed-форм в следующих предложениях.
1. The man saved was a French sailor. 2. The man was a French sailor. 3. I want him saved. 4. If sent away now, the letter will arrive the day after tomorrow. 5. He described the method used by the engineer. 6. The engineer used the method described in the article. 7. The paintings discussed attracted the attention of many visitors. 8. The rule explained we started doing the exercise. 9. The rule explained is difficult. 10. We would like it explained again. 11. If explained, the rule will not seem difficult. 12. Explained again, the rule became quite clear to everybody. 13. She wants this name remembered. 14. When changed, the article was published. 15. If changed, the article will be published.
Задание 14.2. Прочитайте первое утверждение. Закончите второе утверждение согласно образцу и переведите их.
1. Wash my shirt
2. Clean the house
3. The house was painted
4. The car needs to be washed
Get my shirt washed
Have the house cleaned
I had the house painted
I want the car washed
1. Register the letter. Get … 2. Shorten that dress. Get … 3. Do this job. Get … 4. Wash those dishes. Get … 5. Clean your suit. Have … 6. Mend the jacket. Have … 7. Polish your shoes. Get … 8. The TV was fixed. I had … 9. The house is clean. I got … 10. The walls have been papered. I had … 11. The motor has been installed. We got …
Задание 14.3. Прочитайте предложение, определите функцию ing-формы и переведите на русский язык.
а) 1. William likes reading detective stories. 2. Reading is useful. 3. William liked being read to. 4. Having read the telegram twice, he understood that the matter needed immediate attention. 5. The girl reading a book is my sister. 6. Charles denies knowing these people. 7. Charles denies having asked any questions. 8. Charles denies being helped. 9. Charles denies having been helped. 10. Charles denies having been asked any questions. Don’t leave without speaking to the chief. 12. Not knowing the man, I can’t introduce you to him. 13. Having spent a month in the country, she looked much better. 14. Apartments facing south get more sunlight. 15. While going home from school Betty met some of her friends. 16. Thinking he was asleep I turned off the lights. 17. While waiting for a train, he read a magazine. 18. After leaving school his son went to work at a factory. 19. On learning the news she decided to go and see her cousin. 20. When crossing the street, be careful. 21. I remember leaving a message for you. 22. I remember his leaving a message for Mr. Blake. 23. Jane doesn’t like being spoken about. 24. His knowing English will help him in his work. 25. The film is worth seeing.
b) 1. The situation being favorable, they bought the shares (акции). 2. It being Sunday, the shops were closed. 3. There being a lot of things to discuss, the conference lasted for a long time. 4. Jack insisted on your making a report on Tuesday. 5. Ann was proud of her pictures being exhibited at the show. 6. He was disappointed at not being invited to yesterday’s party.
Задание 14.4. Замените придаточные предложения конструкциями с ing-формами. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. After they had finished the translation, the students had a break. 2. As I had lent my dictionary to a friend, I had to go to the library to get one to myself. 3. When you fill in a form, you must write the name and address clearly. 4. As we had a lot of time we didn’t hurry. 5. As I had left your telephone number at home, I couldn’t ring up you. 6. After I had read the book, I turned it to the library. 7. The people who live in this old block of flats will soon get new flats. 8. The question, which is being discussed now, is very important.
Задание 15.1. Определите значение глагола can в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения.
1. Can (could) Douglas be a good musician? 2. The film can’t have been dubbed into Italian. 3. Can they be waiting? 4. I could help them but I am not sure they want me to. 5. When can I leave?
Задание 15.2. Переведите.
1. Can you lift this box? 2. Could he have left his opera glasses in the cloakroom? 3. What a pity we had no camera. We could have made a very good film. 4. Could I help you in any way? (in any way = чем-нибудь) 5. Could you tell me Mr. Brook’s address? 6. You can use my car. 7. Can he have said it? 8. Could he have been at home all this time? 9. He can’t be really ill. 10. Can she have told a lie?
Задание 15.3. Определите значение глагола may (might) и переведите предложения.
1. He might be at home. 2. He may be ill. 3. He may have fallen ill. 4. You may order a taxi by phone. 5. The director is alone now. You may see him for a moment. 6. You might have carry the box for me. 7. You might have helped me. 8. May I have a cup of coffee? 9. May I smoke here? 10. Peter might phone. If he does, could you as. 11. I might get a job soon. 12. I wonder where Emma is. She may be with Nelly, I suppose. 13. Polly’s very late. – She may have missed the train. 14. You might have asked before you borrow my car. 15. She might have told me she was going to stay out all night. 16. You might try asking your uncle for a job. 17. He said he might order a taxi by phone. 18. It may rain.
Задание 15.4. Переведите предложения.
1. You must talk to your son about his future. 2. We must see what can be done. 3. You mustn’t miss the film. It’s very interesting. 4. He must be over fifty. 5. You must come and see us. 6. Cars mustn’t be parked in front of this gate. 7. She must know all about it. 8. I really must stop smoking. 9. I must ask you not to do that any more. 10. I must say he is right. 11. We must tell Mother. 12. You mustn’t tell Ann. I don’t want her to know. 13. The book is not on the shelf. Jane must be reading it. 14. It’s six o’clock. She must have come home. 15. He must have made a mistake. 16. He is unlikely to return. 17. They are unlikely to forget about it. 18. They must know how to divide their time between studies and rest. 19. Look! There is something on the table; he must have left you a message.
Задание 15.5. Скажите, из каких предположений ясно, что запланированное действие не имело место. Предложения переведите.
1. The negotiations (переговоры) were to have taken place in January. 2. The proposal is to be discussed at a joint (совместно) conference. 3. They were to have met on the studio. 4. James was to speak on TV. 5. The program was to have been shown a few days ago. 6. Mr. Black was to have left a message for me.
Задание 15.6. Заполните пропуски глаголами be или have в требуемой форме. Предложения переведите.
1. The conference … to begin next week. 2. All the seats in the stalls (партер)… sold out, so I … to book seats in the balcony. 3. When will you see him? – We … to meet tomorrow morning. 4. The film … to be dubbed into Russia. 5. Will you be in the office today? – I … to be there at three. We have a meeting. 6. Jane didn’t feel well, so we … to send for the doctor. 7. He was late and we … to wait.
Задание 15.7. Переведите.
1. You shouldn’t risk it. 2. He shouldn’t waste so much time. 3. Why should I apologize to them? I am not to blame. 4. The way things are, you shouldn’t refuse the job.
Задание 15.8. Выберите предложения, относящиеся к прошлому, и переведите.
1. She should have said something in conclusion. 2. You ought to be more hospitable. 3. You ought to have been more polite to your elders. 4. You oughtn’t to have discussed such things in public. 5. You shouldn’t give examples proving your point of view.
Задание 15.9. Переведите предложения, укажите предложения, относящиеся к прошлому.
1. You needn’t try to explain. 2. You needn’t tell her – she already knows. 3. You needn’t have woken me up: I don’t have to go to work today. 4. I needn’t have bought all that wine – only three people came. 5. You needn’t have included those figures in your report. 6. She needn’t contact him. 7. James needn’t have gone into details.
Инфинитив имеет ряд глагольных свойств: формы залога и относительного времени, может иметь прямое дополнение и определяется наречием:
1. Инфинитив имеет формы действительного и страдательного залога:
I am glad to invite you to our conference. – Я рад пригласить вас на нашу конференцию.
I am glad to be invited to the theatre. – Я рад, когда меня приглашают в театр.
I am glad to have invited them. – Я рад, что пригласил их.
I am glad to have been invited. – Я рад, что меня пригласили.
2. Инфинитив имеет формы относительного времени. Временные формы инфинитива показывают одновременность или предшествование по отношению к действию основного сказуемого:
действие, одновременное или будущее по отношению к глаголу:
I’m glad to take parting this conference. – Я рад принять участие в этой конференции.
We expect you to met us. – Мы надеемся, что вы нас встретите.
действие, одновременное с глаголом-сказуемым может выражаться ContinuousInfinitive:
I am glad to be working with you. – Я рад, что работаю с вами.
PerfectInfinitive выражает действие, предшествующее глаголу-сказуемому:
I’m glad to have invited you. – Я рад, что пригласил вас.
PerfectContinuousInfinitive употребляется для обозначения действия, которое происходит на протяжении указанного периода времени:
I’m glad to have been working with you all these years. – Я рад, что все эти годы я работаю с вами.
3. Инфинитив может иметь прямое дополнение:
I want to learn English. – Я хочу изучать английский.
4. Инфинитив может определяться наречием:
To drive slowly here is dangerous. – Ехать здесь медленно – опасно.
Задание 16.1. Переведите предложения. Следите за правильностью перевода форм инфинитива.
1. Jane wants to teach you English. 2. Jane wants to be taught English. 3. The girl likes to read. 4. The girl likes to be read to. 5. Grace is happy to have been invited to the party. 6. She is happy to be invited to the party. 7. He was glad not to be noticed. 8. He was glad not to have been noticed. 9. Are you sorry to have left so early? 10. I am sorry to trouble you. 11. I am sorry to have troubled you.
Задание 16.2. Измените предложение, употребив Perfect Indefinite, чтобы показать, что действие, выраженное инфинитивом, произошло в прошлом.
Model: We are glad to see you. – We are glad to have seen you.
1. She is happy to meet you. 2. You are sure to see him in the library. 3. I am glad to be invited to the party. 4. We are glad to hear the news. 5. She is sorry to keep you waiting. 6. She is sure to be admitted to the institute.
Задание 16.3. Измените предложения, употребив Passive Indefinite. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Model: We are glad to meet you. – We are glad to be met by you.
1. I don’t want to ask about it. 2. She wants to tell the story. 3. I am glad to invite them. 4. I don’t like to interrupt you. 5. He is happy to paint you.
Задание 16.4. Вместо придаточных предложений употребите инфинитив в функции определения.
Model: This is a list of words, which must be learned. – This is a list of words to be learned.
1. We’ll find someone who will help us if you are busy. 2. The work which is to be done by the students includes written translation from English into Russian. 3. The task which is to be fulfilled is clear to us. 4. He was the first who made a report. 5. This is the article which is to be published next month.
Задание 16.5. Определите функцию инфинитива в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. To see is to believe. 2. It’s unpleasant to deal with people like Mr. White. 3. Which way to choose is your own business. 4. There is no time to lose. 5. Here are the papers to be signed. 6. He is too young to understand it. 7. I had nobody to talk to. 8. You have nothing to worry about. 9. To live means to struggle. 10. She was the first to offer her help. 11. I dressed and went out to buy the morning paper. 12. I didn’t know what to say. 13. She seemed to know all about it. 14. The text was too difficult to translate. 15. It’s easy to translate this text. 16. I did my best to stop her. 17. She told me she was too tired to go out. 18. Helen will help you to make tea. 19. He didn’t want to be left alone. 20. His greatest wish was to tell her everything. 21. I have no idea how to let them know. 22. Give me something to read on the train. 23. Mr. Jackson was the first to suggest the idea. 24. There are a lot of things to speak about. 25. He is unlikely to come. 26. I’ve got a lot of things to do.
а) составьте предложение, используя объектный инфинитивный оборот.
to forget it
to remember that
to take care of the children
the proposal to be adopted
They don’t want
the problem to be solved
Would you like
the job to be done right away
I wouldn’t like
the review to be published
the fact to be proved
everything to be arranged
б) переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. I want you to hurry. 2. He wants you to forget it. 3. Do you want me to sing the paper? 4. Which do you wish your son to do, go into business or become a lawyer? 5. They want the installation to be dismanted.
в) переведите предложения на русский язык. Объясните, почему перед инфинитивом отсутствует частица to.
1. He heard the telephone ring. 2. We watched the planes take off. 3. I saw him get on the bus. 4. Have you ever heard him play the piano? 5. Did any of you see him enter the bank? 6. None of us noticed him put the paper in this case.
Задание 16.7. Замените придаточное предложение субъектными инфинитивными оборотами.
Model: It is said that he knows the subject well. – He is said to know the subject well.
1. It is believed that the expedition will return next Sunday. 2. It is supposed that the students have already submitted their term papers. 3. It was said that the performance had been a success. 4. It is said that she is ill. 5. It is know that he has gone to Moscow. 6. It is reported that great construction work is going on in their city. 7. It is known that the seas surrounding this island are shallow.
Задание 16.8. Переведите предложения.
1. He is considered to be an experienced accountant. 2. Mr. Johnson is believed to be studying French. 3. He is believed to have studied English and Spanish in his childhood. 4. Kate was expected to write from Paris. 5. Mr. Hook was believed to be living in Holland. 6. My friend is believed to have lived in Moscow for over ten years. 7. Ten planes were reported to be taking part in this operation. 8. Ten planes were reported to have taken part in this operation. 9. Mr. Russell was known to have expressed his opinion in his letter to management. 10. My aunt is expected to return from Moscow tomorrow.
Задание 17.1. Скажите какой тип условных предложений вы употребляете при переводе следующих предложений на английский язык.
1. Если вы придете завтра, мы обсудим этот вопрос. 2. Если бы вы завтра пришли, мы бы обсудили этот вопрос. 3. если бы вы пришли вчера, мы бы обсудили этот вопрос. 4. Если бы ты не был таким рассеянным, ты не сделал столько ошибок в контрольной работе. 5. Если вы примете участие в соревнованиях, то вы победите. 6. Если вы внимательно выслушаете инструкцию, то вы все сделаете быстро и правильно. 7. Я бы очень удивился, если бы вы проиграли этот матч. 8. Если бы у меня было время, я бы поехал с вами на экскурсию. 9. Если бы вы хотели попасть на премьеру, вы бы купили билеты заранее. 10. На вашем месте я бы уже написал ему.
Задание 17.2. Переведите предложения, назовите тип условных предложений.
1. If they offer us their help, we’ll accept it. 2. If Jack were more polite, she said wouldn’t behave like that. 3. She said that if they were here, she’d speak to them. 4. If he were here, he could help us. 5. If I were you, I wouldn’t treat the boy like that. 6. If I had been in your place, I wouldn’t have got offended (to offend – обижать, оскорблять). 7. If anything had been wrong with the car, they would have gone by train.
Задание 17.3. Измените предложения, употребляя вместо глагола would глагол could или might. Предложения переведите.
1. If they hadn’t taken a taxi, they would have missed the train. 2. If Robert were here, he would suggest a way out. 3. If we had let them know, they would have met us at the station. 4. If Robert were a doctor, they would listen to him.
Задание 17.4. Измените предложения. Переведите их.
Model: If he comes, we’ll discuss it. – If he come, we’d discuss it. – If he’d come, we’d have discussed it.
1. If you interfere in their affairs, they’ll get angry. 2. If I keep them waiting, I’ll apologize. 3. If you explain everything, he’ll forgive you. 4. If you arrange to meet on Sunday, I’ll come too. 5. If he stays away long, we’ll miss him.
Задание 17.5. Переведите предложения.
1.Если бы я знал польский, я бы вам помог. 2. Если бы он получил ваше письмо, он приехал бы раньше. 3. Если бы я знал мистера Грина, я бы поговорил с ним. 4. Если бы он был здесь, он бы дал вам другой совет. 5. Почему бы вам не принять участие в завтрашнем соревновании? Вы могли бы выиграть. 6. Если бы не вы, я бы не знал о выставке. 7. Если бы не дождь, я бы приехал. 8. Если бы не отец, я бы не настаивал на этом.
а) переведите предложения;
б) перефразируйте предложения, употребляя It’s a pity…, I’m sorry…, Too bad … .
Model: I wish I knew him. – It’s pity I don’t know him.
1. I wish he were here. 2. I wish I were free. 3. I wish I were young. 4. I wish it were not so late. 5. I wish I knew Spanish. 6. I wish I speak English fluently. 7. I Wish I could help you. 8. I wish I had recognized him. 9. I wish I had drawn his a attention to it. 10. I wish I hadn’t argued with him.