1. Translate the text. Please remember the words:
a courthouse - здание суда
the defense lawyer – адвокат
a judge - судья
the accused - обвиняемый
a jury - суд присяжных
that`s why - поэтому
to break the law - преступить закон
carefully - тщательно, внимательно
Your Honour - Ваша честь
a witness- свидетель
a robe - мантия
to interrupt -прерывать
an oath - присяга, клятва
A Courthouse and The People There
In most towns and cities, there is a building called a courthouse. It`s a place where judges, and sometimes juries, decide if someone has broken the law. It`s the judge`s job to listen to everything that everyone says in court. We can call the judge "Your Honour" when it`s our turn to talk. It`s also the judge`s job to know the law and to decide whether the law has been broken or not.
The Crown attorney or Crown prosecutor helps us to do our job as witnesses. The Crown does this by asking us questions so that the judge can listen to our answers. Sometimes the Crown wears a robe for court. The defense lawyer`s job is to help the accused. The accused is the person charged with breaking the law. To do a good job, the defense lawyer tries to find out if we`ve made a mistake, or if we can`t remember something, or if we`ve made something up. That`s why the defense lawyer gets a chance to ask us questions after the Crown has finished asking us questions. We`ve got to listen to everyone`s questions carefully and understand them before we answer. Sometimes when we`re talking in court, the defense lawyer may stand up and interrupt us to talk to the judge. All we have to do is stop talking until the judge or the Crown asks us to go on. The person whom the police have charged with breaking the law is called the accused.
Maybe we know the accused; maybe we don`t. Maybe we`ve seen the accused before, maybe we haven`t. Sometimes when we do our job as witnesses, we end up talking about the accused.
The judge or the Crown may ask us if we see the person that we are talking about in court.
2. Please answer the following questions:
1. What is a courthouse?
2. Do you know what an oath is?
3. What may happen if people do not tell the truth in court?
4. What questions do you want to ask the Crown?
5. Do you want someone to come to court with you? Who?
6. Who does the defense lawyer help?
7. What person is called the accused?
8. Does going to the court scare you?
3. Please translate the following story into English:
Привет. Меня зовут Билл. Сегодня я иду в суд. Это мое первое посещение здания суда. Там я выступаю в качестве свидетеля. Я знаю мало о предстоящей процедуре. Я лишь знаю, что в суде принимают участие судья, иногда суд присяжных, прокурор, адвокат, обвиняемый, свидетель. Мне немного не по себе, как обычно бывает, когда делаешь что-то важное впервые.
4. Please guess a word which is a legal term and consists of four letters.
These letters are: the first letter in the English variant of 'мантия'; The third letter in the English variant of 'суд'; the first letter in the English variant of 'Ваша честь'; The first letter in the English variant of 'судья'; Place the letters in order.
5. Please translate the text. Remember the words.
to give evidence -давать показания
a cassette recorder - магнитофон
to tell the truth - говорить правду
a typing machine - пишущая машинка
a screen - экран
to take one`s time - не торопиться
while - в то время как, пока
to mean - иметь ввиду, хотеть сказать
to decide - решать
to shake one`s head- кивнуть
outside - вне, за пределами
to chew - жевать
the court reporter -протоколист
to cover - закрыть, закрывать
to take down — записывать
A Witness and The Court Reporter
A witness is a very important person in court. Our job as witnesses is to listen to questions and to give answers for the judge to hear. This is called giving evidence. The most important thing about being a witness is TELLING THE TRUTH.
The Crown or someone who works with the Crown should show us the courtroom before it`s time for us to be witnesses. If we have any questions after we see the courtroom, we can always ask the Crown.
Sometimes when people talk to the police and the social worker, a videotape is made. Do you know if a videotape was made of you? If there was, the Crown might show it to you.
Sometimes the Crown can talk to the judge about letting us sit behind a screen while we do our job as witnesses. The judge decides if a screen should be used.
Some courthouses have a special courtroom TV. If the judge decides that it`s best for us to stay outside the courtroom, we can do our job as witnesses in another room. The judge stays in the courtroom and listens to us tell about what happened on TV.
The court reporter`s job is to take down everything that everyone says in court. Sometimes the reporter uses a cassette recorder. Sometimes the reporter uses a special typing machine.
We can make the court reporter`s job easier if we speak loudly and slowly. It`s okay to take our time. If we mean yes or no, we should always say the words, and not just shake our heads.
It makes the court reporter`s job harder when witnesses eat, chew gum, or cover their mouths when they talk.
It`s better if only one person speaks at a time.
6. Please answer the questions:
1. What do you do if you are asked a question and you don`t understand it?
2. What if you are asked an embarrassing question?
3. What if you are asked more than one question at a time?
4. Who should show you the courtroom?
5. What is a videotape?
6. What does the court reporter do?
7. What is a typing machine?
8. Is it okay to take our time when we answer questions?
9. Should we just shake our heads or should we always say the words if we mean yes or no?
10. What makes the court reporter`s job harder?
7. Please translate the following sentences into English:
1. Свидетель играет важную роль в суде.
2. Когда свидетелю задают вопрос, он должен отвечать только правду.
3. Свидетель дает присягу перед тем, как ему будут задавать вопросы.
4. Иногда свидетелей снимают на пленку.
5. Иногда перед свидетелем ставят экран
6. В судах часто используется специальное телевидение.
7. Все, что происходит в зале суда, записывается протоколистом.
8. Please guess a word which is a legal term and consists of five letters:
These letters are: the third letter in the English variant of 'правда'; the first letter in the English variant of 'закрыть'; the first letter of the English variant of 'пишущая машинка'; the English variant of 'вне,за пределами'; the third letter in the English variant of 'экран'. Place the letters in order.
9. Please translate the following into English:
меньшая группа .......................
более крупная сумма.................
самый значительный факт из ее биографии............................
более серьезное преступление.............................................
менее серьезное наказание .................................................
более убедительное показание .........................................
10. Underline the predicates, Write down in what Tenses the verbs are used and translate the sentences into Russian:
1. They often publish information on economic crimes.
2. I do not know when she will give evidence
3. Do you believe all she has said?
4. The newspapers write he is staying in prison in Switzerland.
5. I`m sure he will make a good lawyer.
6. Is he studying law at the University?
7. I have never been to any court, criminal or civil.
11. Underline the verbs in the object clauses, write down the Tenses in which they are used and translate the sentences into Russian:
1. He said he was a real estate agent.
2. We were sure he had legated his house.
3. The man thought they would evade the law.
4. He asked how many clauses there were in the Contract.
5. The officer inquired when the arson started.
6. He wondered if the agreement had been signed.
7. They wanted to know if the lawyers would take part in the negotiations.
12. Rewrite this dialogue between a police officer (PO) and a tenant (T) after the house had been burgled, in indirect speech:
PO: Now you say you`re not sure how the thieves got in.
Before I look round, can I ask you a few questions about the house?
T: Of course.
PO: Do you always lock the front door when you go out?
T: Yes, and I definitely locked it yesterday.
PO: OK. What about the windows?
T: Well, the downstairs ones are always locked.
PO: And upstairs?
T: Well, I think most of the windows were probably locked.
PO: Are you sure?
T: Yes, I checked them all because I knew we would be out all day.
PO: Well, I can`t understand it. Let`s go and look round. Perhaps I`ll notice something you`ve missed.
13. Match the English and Russian equivalents:
оказаться фальшивым, поддельным
To avoid payment of customs
to relinquish smb. from responsibility
to enforce guarantee
не платить пошлины
to cover a loss
to absolve oneself of a guarantee
освобождать кого-либо от ответственности
to prove fraudulent
14. Underline the clauses and translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. Please don`t touch anything until the police arrive.
2. If he breaks the rules he will be fined.
3. As soon as you affix the statement the matter will be considered settled.
4. We shall agree to your terms provided you agree to expedite delivery.
5. We shall compensate for your losses, if any, provided there is an appropriate clause in the Contract.
6. If the agreement is translated this week we shall be able to give a copy of it to you personally.
7. As soon as we find out their legal address we shall contract you.
15. Translate the following sentences into English, paying attention to the use of Tenses:
1. Если вы представите все необходимые документы, мы немедленно рассмотрим этот вопрос.
2. Как только мы получим новую инструкцию, мы направим вам копию.
3. Если у вас будут вопросы, пожалуйста, свяжитесь с нами.
4. Если они увеличат плату за юридические услуги, мы обратимся к другим специалистам.
5. Если они понесут убытки, мы сможем компенсировать только часть этой суммы.
16. Open the brackets by using the verbs in the correct forms:
Yesterday evening, a black BMW (to steal) from outside the home of Mr. John Simpson. Mr. Simpson (to telephone) the police. Later that evening, the car (to see) in the High. Street by Mr. Simpson`s wife, Laura. It was outside the Red Lion Hotel. The keys were in the car, so she (to drive) it home! The police (to look) for a careless thief!
17. Translate the following sentences into English, paying attention to the use or non-use of the particle TO before the Infinitives:
1. Они заставили его выплатить выкуп.
2. Обстоятельства заставили его задержаться в городе.
3. Я сам слышал, что они хотят внести дополнение к этому контракту.
4. Это позволит нам принять ваше предложение.
5. Мы видели, как его арестовали.
18. Underline the verbs in the principal clauses and translate the following sentences:
1. He would stay at home today if he were ill.
2. They would not have supported us even if we had them for help.
3. If I were you I would tell him the truth. Believe me, it would be much better. And you would feel better.
4. I saw him yesterday. If I had not I would not have learned the news.
19. Complete the following sentences by opening the brackets and adding some necessary words:
1. If I were you ... (to tell the truth)
2. If I had seen him yesterday ... (to deliver the goods)
3. If we had not signed this Contract last month ... (to ask for advice)
4. We would refer the matter to arbitration ... (not to observe the terms)
5. I would call the police if ... (to threaten)
6. I would have been much confused ... (to ask this question)
7. I would not have had the courage to intervene ... (to be present)
20. Please translate the following sentences:
1. A solicitor is a lawyer who gives legal advice to his or her client and may sometimes represent them in court.
2. A trustee is the legal owner of property which s/he holds in trust for the benefit of the beneficiary under Rules of Equity and the trustee must act in the interest of the beneficiary, according to the terms of the trust.
3. In law "to appeal" is to ask a higher court to change the judgement already given by a lower court. Criminals have the right to appeal against their sentences to the Court of Appeal. If the appeal is refused there can be a final appeal to the House of Lords, but this really happens.