Задание 1. Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную видо-временную форму активного или пассивного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The train (to slow down - замедлять ход) before our eyes.
2. ... any problems ... (to arise - возникать) in the lining (облицовка) of the tunnel?
3. The first truck with a diesel... (to show - показывать) at the Paris exhibition in the spring of 1928.
4. About 280 of the aircraft... (to modify -модифицировать, реконструировать) to date.
5. Automobile ... (to buy) and ... (to use) lor basic convenience and as a manifestation of social status.
6. Most parts of the technology ... (to make - делать.) good progress since that early demonstration.
7. The company ... just... (to go through - пройти, перевести) a difficult period». but again was ready to start new project.
8. Some towns ... (to ban - запрещать) snowmobiles outright.
9. The first motor ... (to manufacture - изготовлять) in 1911 and the industry ... (to progress) slowly until World War II.
10. The current phase of the program ... (to finish) in 5 years.
Задание 2. Перепишите предложения, выделите глаголы to be/ to have/ to do и определите их функцию.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Deliveries are to begin in March.
2. The engineers did not reveal the full extent of work.
3. One aircraft is being used as a demonstrator (экспонат).
4. The expedition had to repair a defective segment of the telegraph cable.
5. Technical textbooks serve the same function in engineering practice as grammars do for linguistic usage.
6. Our task is to link the countries of Europe and America.
7. Only in times of war or crisis did the US Government intervene actively in the international radio communications.
8. France had brilliant engineers, business people and plentiful capital.
Задание 3. Перепишите предложения. Выделите служебные слова it, that, one, определите их функцию и переведите предложения на русский язык.
Распознайте усилительную конструкцию It is/ was ... who/ that - именно...; It was not before/ until ... when - только после...; This/ that is where - вот где.
1. The Interspace complex in France is one of the most advanced test centres in Europe.
2. It was found that, the zone beneath northeastern Japan was much colder.
3. They aren't the only ones interested in resurrecting (воскрешение) a mammoth.
4. This is where the future lies for science and technology.
5. It's the skill of the driver that makes the snowmobile glide and drift and speed.
6. The result is a good book, one which contains an excellent review of literature.
Задание 4. Перепишите предложения. Заполните пропуски одним из союзных слов (who, what, that, which, where, when, whose), укажите, в каких предложениях союз можно не употреблять). Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. There is no guarantee _ satellite will reach its destination (точка назначения).
2. We have shown _ high-pressure reactions can be observed under dynamic conditions.
3. There were twenty-three researchers and curators at the museum _ it opened.
4. The program has entered the final phase of demonstration _ began in November.
5. We can demonstrate _ people also respond to technology with enthusiasm.
6. A medal is presented annually to an individual _ has made an outstanding contribution to technology.
7. Present this information to people _ need it and when they need it.
Задание 5. Перепишите предложения. Выделите инфинитив, герундий и причастие и определите их функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. New methods of solving problems using parallel processors need to be developed.
2. Ford Aerospace has successfully completed (to complete - завершать) testing the components.
3. You must go out in the world and do something.
4. Micromagnetic simulations were used to investigate the demagnetization processes.
5. Engineers wanted answers faster than women could supply them using available (имеющийся в наличии) technology.
6. The Administration plan to reduce the defense budget total by 2 % per year, not counting inflation.
Задание 6. Перепишите предложения, распознайте и выделите инфинитивные обороты - объектный, субъектный, определительный и обстоятельственный.
1. Oceanic crust is predicted to transform to eclogite.
2. Property owners (to reject - возражать) increased taxes to pay for infrastructure work.
3. The industry is likely to lose money in 2010.
4. In order to produce these new models, the company opened branch plants.
5. Each program is expected to find ways to cut costs (затраты).
6. Administration wants the program to move forward to its completion.
7. Each thermal pump required an engineer tomake repairs.
8. The aim of this school was acquiring (приобретение) knowledge to be applied in engineering.
9. To improve space Weather forecasting (прогнозирование), researchers are studying the sun.
Задание 7. Перепишете предложения, выделите причастные обороты определительный, дополнительный, обстоятельственный и независимый.
1. All personnel working in the building were evacuated.
2. In the case being considered here, the critical Reynold's number is close to the lower limit.
3. Having no adequate protection, satellites or astronauts can be in danger.
4. In the same year 30000 trucks were produced in France, one-fourth of them being delivered to the military.
5. Students see their engineering professors paying attention to history of technology.
6. Product sales represented 57 % of total revenues (доходы), the remained coming from special projects.
7. The city engineers proposed for a wide boulevard extending between the east and west boundaries (границы) of the city.
Задание 8. Сослагательное наклонение. Перепишите предложения. Определите тип условного предложения, переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. If a motor-car is noisy and goes like a hell, it will sell.
2. If this scholarly trend (тенденция) continues, it will be with benefits (польза).
3. If they were not technicians, how would decide what to built?
4. The problem could have been avoided if a different kind of transport had been used.
5. If we traveled to the Third World, our doctors would vaccinate us to prevent hepatitis.
Задание 9. Смотрите образцы выполнения заданий
Тексты к заданию №2
Clean air, an essential component of a healthful environment, is a mixture of many different gases. Two gases predominate: nitrogen, which makes up 78 percent of the volume clean dry air, and oxygen, which makes up 21 percent. In the Earth's atmosphere, water vapour is also a significant component but the most variable one, ranging from 0,01 to 4 percent by volume, its concentration in air varying daily and seasonally, as well as geographically.
Air is considered to be polluted when it contains certain substances in concentrations high enough to cause harm of undesirable effects. The atmosphere is susceptible (подвержена) to pollution from natural sources as well as from human activities. Only pollution caused by human activities, such as industry and transportation is subject to mitigation and control.
Beginning in the 19 century, increasing use of fossil fuels intensified the severity and frequency of air-pollution episodes. It was not until the middle of the 20 century, that attempts were made to regulate or limit emissions of air pollutants from stationary or mobile sources (i.e., gasoline - powered highway vehicles) and to control air quality on both regional and local scales.
The focusof air pollution regulation in industrialized countries was initially on protecting outdoor air quality. This involved the control of a small number of pollutants known to contribute to urban smog and chronic public health problems. Toward the end of the 20th century, the dangerous effects of trace (ионов) amounts of many other air pollutants were recognized, and emission regulations were implemented. Long-term effects of certain substances on atmospheric chemistry and climate were also observed at that time.
Questions to be answered in writing
1. Which air components predominate in clean air of a healthful environment?
2. When is air considered to be polluted?
3. What kind of pollutions is subject (подлежит) to mitigation and control?
4. What have emission regulations focused on in the latest 50 years?
Generation of Oil
Oil is generated in sedimentary basins. These basins are shallow depressions on the continents that have intermittently (прерывисто, перемежаясь) been covered with seawater, or offshore basins on continental shelves. They are hundreds of square kilometers in area and contain sediments of three types: 1) rock particles varying from sands to clay muds, which were eroded from mountains and were сarried to the basins by streams, 2)biochemical and chemical precipitates such as limestone gypsum, anhydrite, 3) organic matter from the plants and animals that lived in the sea or were curried in by rivers. The third type of sediment, the organic matter, is the source of petroleum. Evidence (свидетельство) for this is the fact that petroleum contains small amounts of several substances that could have come only from living things. Examples of these are porphyry related to (родственный) hemi and chlorophyll.
It is believed that oil is generated from organic matter in two ways. A small amount probably less than 10%comes directly from the hydrocarbons (углеводородные соединения) that marine organisms form as part of their living cells. The second process, by which about 90 % of the oil is formed, involves the formation of hydrocarbons from the decay and alteration of buried, organic matter. Nearly all of the hydrocarbons containing up to 10 carbon atoms are formed in this manner. By the time the sediments are buried to depths of 500-700 m, enough hydrocarbons have been generated to enable a commercial oil field to form under favourable accumulation conditions. It is estimated there are 6000x109 tons of petroleum in the reservoir rocks of the continents and continental shelves of the world.
Questions to be answered in writing:
1. Where is oil generated?
2. What are the types of sediments which sedimentary basins contain?
3. Where is oil generated from?
4. How much petroleum is available in reservoir rocks (of the world)?