Правильные ответы на контрольные работы по английскому языку может дать тот, кто хорошо знает лексику и грамматику английского.
Контрольные по английскому
Чтобы правильно ответить на вопросы контрольной работы, необходимы хорошие знания.
I. Перепишите предложения, вставьте вместо пропусков неопределенные местоимения или наречия, производные от some, any, no, every.
1. _ of the children wanted to go to bed.
2. _ advises him to go to the South for a holiday.
3. I found _ 's gloves yesterday. Are they yours?
4. Can _ of you help me finish the work?
5. If _ rings me up, say that I'll be back in an hour.
II. Переведите на английский язык, используя там, где это возможно, причастные обороты.
1. Мужчина, сидящий у окна - мой кузен.
2. Я прочел несколько книг Олдриджа, переведенных на русский язык.
3. Каждый раз, находясь в Лондоне, он навещал своего друга.
4. Гордясь своим отцом, он часто говорит о нем.
5. Как зовут человека, который говорит по телефону?
III. Перепишите предложения, раскройте скобки, вставляя глаголы либо в the Present Perfect Tense, либо в the Past Perfect Tense.
1. She (not be) to work since July.
2. My granny (be) a pensioner for fifteen years.
3. When Mother came home the children (go) to bed.
4. She didn't want to speak with him after they (quarrel).
5. He (be) away for a month.
IV. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них конструкцию «сложное дополнение», переведите их на русский язык.
1. Не watched the men unloading the lorry.
2. The captain ordered the sailors to load the guns.
3. He hates me to sing.
4. I saw Tom coming towards us.
5. I believe he will want the picture done with the greatest speed.
V. Перепишите и переведите письменно текст.
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (II)
Solzhenitsyn's period of official favour proved to be short-lived, however. Ideological strictures on cultural activity in the Soviet Union tightened with Nikita Khrushchev's fall from power in 1964, and Solzhenitsyn met first with increasing criticism and then with overt harassment from the authorities when he emerged as an eloquent opponent of repressive government policies. After the publication of a collection of his short stories in 1963, he was denied further official publication of his work, and he resorted to circulating them in the form of samizdat («self-published») literature i, е., as illegal literature circulated clandestinely—as well as publishing them abroad.
The following years were marked by the foreign publication of several ambitious novels that secured Solzhenitsyn's international literary reputation. V kruge pervom (1968) was indirectly based on his years spent working in a prison research institute as a mathematician. The book traces the varying responses of scientists at work on research for the secret police as they must decide whether to cooperate with the authorities and thus remain within the research prison or to refuse their services and be thrust back into the brutal conditions of the labour camps. Rakovy korpus (1968) was based on Solzhenitsyn's hospitalization and successful treatment for terminally diagnosed cancer during his forced exile in Kazakhstan during the mid-1950s. The main character, like Solzhenitsyn himself, was a recently released inmate of the camps.
In 1970 Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he declined to go to Stockholm to receive the prize for fear he would not be readmitted to the Soviet Union by the government upon his return. His next novel to be published outside the Soviet Union was Avgust 1914 (1971), a historical novel treating Germany's crushing victory over Russia in their initial military engagement of World War I, the Battle of Tannenburg. The novel centred on several characters in the doomed 1st Army of the Russian general A.V. Samsonov and indirectly explored the weaknesses of the tsarist regime that eventually led to its downfall by revolution in 1917.
VI. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. Why did Solzhenitsyn meet with increasing criticism?
2. What experience is reflected in V kruge pervom?
3. Why did he decline to go to Stockholm for the Nobel Prize?
VII. Письменно переведите текст.
Pragmatics studies the factors which govern someone's choice of language, when they speak or write. If we choose to say something, there are all kinds of factors which constrain what we will say, and how we say it.
The study of the rules governing our use of language in social interaction is part of pragmatics, and is often referred to as conversation analysis. In this field, we are concerned to establish why language works, or fails to work, in maintaining a satisfactory conversation, from the viewpoint of those who participate in it. It is a difficult field to study, because naturalistic samples of data are never easy to obtain, and even when the data are available, the pragmatic rules are never easy to observe.
H.P. Grice has classified the factors which affect the success of a conversation in terms of cooperative principles between speaker and hearer. These principles control the way a conversation proceeds which can be deduced from the form of the sentences used are known as conversational implicatures.
Concepts such as presupposition and implicature are an important part of the study of pragmatics, but they are of relevance for the study of semantics also, especially in connection with such classical problems as how to analyse the truth or falsity of sentences. At one extreme, it makes contact with sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics, through such notions as appropriateness and acceptability. At the other extreme the field makes contact with semantics and grammar, through such notions as presupposition, topic and comment.