Контрольные по английскому языку
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Грамматика: Infinitive. Forms and Functions. Bare Infinitive
Infinitive Constructions: Objective, Nominative, For-to-Infinitive
Задание 1. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте инфинитив в нужной форме и переведите предложение на русский язык.
4. He is said … director of the computer firm last month.
A. to appoint C. to have been appointed E. to have appointed
B. to be appointed D. to be appointing F. to have been appointing
5. Technical support is starting … as an additional business opportunity.
A. to have thought of C. to be thinking of E. to think of
B. to have been thought of D. to be thought of F. to have been thinking of
6. He is said … a new computer program now.
A. to write C. to have been written E. to have written
B. to be written D. to be writing F. to have been writing
Задание 2. Перепишите предложения, поставьте частицу to, где необходимо. Объясните причину отсутствия частицы to. Переведите предложение на русский язык.
4. Every student of Cambridge is _ go to his tutor once a week _ discuss with him the work done.
5. The X Window System enables Unix-based computers _ have a graphical look and feel.
6. Applications software comprises the specific business-task-related instructions that help a user _ get his or her job done.
Задание 3. Перепишите предложения. Измените их используя Infinitive вместо подчёркнутых слов. Переведите полученное предложение на русский язык.
4. Charles Babbage was the first who invent a machine whose operating principle is very similar to present day computers.
5. We have well equipped Hardware Quality Labs where we can run our own tests on a wide range of equipment, like different hardware and different editions.
6. I was surprised when I knew that my computer was infected by the virus.
Задание 4. Перепишите предложения. Замените сложные предложения или группы предложений простыми предложениями с инфинитивным оборотом Complex Object. Переведите полученное предложение на русский язык.
4. He is a professional computer operator. We’d like it.
5. This technology has been in development for the last 20 years. We know it.
6. The file has been debugged. They believed it.
Задание 5. Перепишите предложения. Закончите их, используя "for-to-Infinitive Construction". Переведите предложение на русский язык.
4. The first thing for me to do is to find out how to use this software.
5. ENIAC could do a math problem that would have taken 40 hours (to finish; one person).
6. It is easy (you; that; to say).
Задание 6. Перепишите предложения с Complex Subject. Вставьте сказуемое в нужной форме и переведите предложение на русский язык.
4. All MT systems … to produce bad translations. (to know)
5. Multimedia development … to get faster and faster. (to expect)
6. Virus shields … to be more effective than virus scanners. (to say)
Задание 7. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните инфинитивные обороты. Определите, какой инфинитивный оборот употреблён в предложении. Переведите предложение на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму инфинитива
1. This plant is known to produce computers.
2. We know him to be the best expert to assess this applications software.
3. Software purchasers are unlikely to get the technical support they need.
Грамматика: Participle. Forms and Functions. Participial Constructions
Gerund. Gerundial Construction
Задание 8. Выберите правильный вариант перевода выделенной части предложения. Переведите предложение на русский язык.
10. You can build your own software around it without paying anybody anything.
A. не заплатив C. не оплаченные
B. не заплатившие D. Не оплачивающие
11. His favorite pastime is playing computer games.
A. поиграв C. играющий
B. играть D. сыгравший
12. There is no point in having a computer if you never use it.
A. имея C. имеющий
B. обладание D. иметь
Задание 9. Выберите нужную форму Participle I. Переведите предложение на русский язык.
7. Interaction is the process of a computer … a command or statement again and again until the result is obtained.
A. executing B. being executed C. having executed
8. GOTO instruction is a high level programming language (cause) a jump to another place in the program.
A. being caused B. causing C. having caused D. being caused
6. … the virus-checking program he started scanning the PC.
A. writing B. being written C. having written D. being writing
Задание 10. Перепишите предложения. Замените выделенную часть предложения соответствующей формой Participle I. Переведите полученное предложение на русский язык.
7. The software company sent me a brochure which contained all the information I needed.
A. containing B. having contained C. being contained
• As high-level languages allow the programmer to express with one statement what would take several commands in machine language they are more efficient.
A. allowing B. Being allowed C. Having allowed D. Having been allowed
• When you use your flybook as a desktop or laptop, you may operate it by a mouse
A. Being used B. using C. Having used D. Having been used
Задание 11. Перепишите предложения. Определите, какой формой глагола является выделенное слово: Participle II или Past Simple. Переведите полученное предложения на русский язык.
1. There are only three necessary control structures needed to write programs: sequence, selection, and iteration.
2. Software engineering is the processes involved in writing computer software such as designing, coding and testing programs.
3. In the 1060s, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and a host of companies developed an experimental operating system called Multics.
Задание 12. Перепишите предложения. Вставьте Participle I или Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
10. The letters are stored in a subdirectory … “correspondence” on the C drive. (to call)
11. Expert systems will be able to infer answers from sets of data … humanlike thoughts processes. (to emulate)
12. Intruders (hackers) may compromise many systems … them like baseball cards. (to collect)
Задание 13. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните причастные обороты. Переведите предложение на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму причастия.
1. Bill Gates arriving to Vladivostok, we shall go to meet him.
2. The program having been offered to purchase, a lot of people bought it.
3. We had three lectures yesterday, the last being on informatics.
Задание 14. Перепишите предложения. Определите, чем является выделенное слово: Participle I, Gerund, Verbal Noun. Переведите предложение на русский язык.
S) Opting for XML is a bit like choosing SQL for databases.
T) He manages a company specializing in multimedia hardware and software.
U) From the very beginning, early operating systems were developed in the 1950s to provide a dimplier development experience.
Задание 15. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните герундиальные обороты. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на форму герундия.
• He insisted on my computer being examined for potential danger.
• In spite of not having any special education I was able to fix my computer.
• All of these programs are alike in using similar internal schemes for storing data.
Задание 16. Прочитайте текст.
I. An operating system is a master control program which controls the functions of the computer system as a whole and the running of application programs. All computers do not use the same operating systems. It is therefore important to asses the operating system used on a particular model before initial commitment because some software is only designed to run under the control of specific operating systems. Some operating systems are adopted as «industry standards» and these are the ones which should be evaluated because they normally have a good software base. The reason for this is that software houses are willing to expand resources on the development of application packages for machines functioning under the control of an operating system which is widely used. The cost of software is likely to be lower in such circumstances as the development costs are spread over a greater number of users, both actual and potential.
II. Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently, switching from one to the other, for the purpose of increasing processing productivity. This is known as multiprogramming (multi-tasking in the context of microcomputers), which requires a powerful operating system incorporating work scheduling facilities to control the switching between programs. This entails reading in data for one program while the processor is performing computations on another and printing out results on yet another.
III. In multi-user environments an operating system is required to control terminal operations on a shared access basis as only one user can access the system at any moment of time. The operating system allocates control to each terminal in turn. Such also require a system for record locking and unlocking, to prevent one user attempting to read a record whilst another user is updating it, for instance. The first user is allocated control to write to a record (or file in some instances), other users being denied access until the record is updated and unlocked.
Some environments operate in concurrent batch and real-time mode. This means that a «background» job deals with routine batch processing whilst the «foreground» job deals with real-time operations such as airline seat reservations, on-line booking of hotel accommodation, or control of warehouse stocks, etc. The real-time operation has priority, and the operating system interrupts batch processing operations to deal with real-time inquiries or file updates. The stage of batch processing attained at the time of the interrupt is temporarily transferred to backing storage. The real-time operation having been dealt with, the interrupted program is transferred back to internal memory from backing storage, and processing recommences from a «restart» point. The operating system also copies to disk backing storage the state of the real-time system every few minutes (periodic check points) to provide a means of «recovering» the system in the event of a malfunction.
IV. An operating system is stored on disk and has to be booted into the internal memory (RAM) where it must reside throughout processing so that commands are instantly available. The operating system commands may exceed the internal memory capacity of the computer in which case only that portion of the OS which is frequently used is retained internally, other modules being read in from disk as required. Many microcomputers function under the control of disk operating system known as DOS.
G) Переведите письменно IV часть текста.
is stored on disk and has to be booted into the internal memory (RAM) where it must reside throughout processing so that commands are instantly available. The operating system commands may exceed the internal memory capacity of the computer in which case only that portion of the OS which is frequently used is retained internally, other modules being read in from disk as required. Many microcomputers function under the control of disk operating system known as DOS.
H) Найдите слова в тексте к следующим определениям: …
1. This system is the most important type of syAn operating systemstem software in a computer system. Without it a user cannot run an application program on their computer, unless the application program is self booting.
2. It is the allocation of a computer system and its resources to more than one concurrent application, job or user ("program" in this nomenclature).
3. This is where an operating system has to be booted into and where it must reside throughout processing so that commands are instantly available.
I) Ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию из текста.
1. What is the purpose of operating system?
2. Why is it important to assess the operating system on a computer before buying it?
3. What is multiprogramming?
J) В какой части текста говорится:…
1. о том, где размещается операционная система?
2. о примерах обработки данных в режиме реального времени?
3. о задачах, которые обычно выполняет операционная система?
K) Определите, является ли данное предложение: истинным, ложным или в тексте нет об этом информации.
1. All computers use the same operating systems.
2. Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently, switching from one to the other.
3. Computers which do batch processing often operate at night.
(1) Выберите заголовок к данному тексту:
1. Mainframe computers
2. The operating system commands
3. General features of operating system