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В контрольной по английскому пять заданий. Задания среднего уровня сложности. Здесь имеется текст, который необходимо перевести.




I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов should и would.

1. In the future new alloys and synthetic materials should replace the metals we use today.
2. If all people of the world counted the atoms in a drop of water they would not be able to finish their work even in ten thousand years.
3. It would be impossible to simplify the production of aluminum without using the electrochemical method.

II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, принимая во внимание, что инфинитивные и причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.

1. Many sources of X-rays are supposed to exist in the Universe, but the technical difficulties of observing them are great.
2. Having subjected crystals to X-radiation the scientists could obtain materials with special properties.
3. Welded joints were X-rayed to examine the strength of welding.
4. Industrial robots to be built now perform certain tasks even better than a human being.
5. The melting point of pure iron reaches 1535?C, most steels melting at about 1300 to 1500?C.

III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.

1. Man has recognized that sunlight is a powerful source of energy since ancient times.
2. Apart from causing the metal to become softer than before, and much easier to machine, annealing has a second advantage, for it helps to relieve any internal stresses which exist in the metal.
3. All kinds of test installations and multiple switching control devices are used for inspecting either temperature and pressure or density in any part of a system.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 4-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й и 3-й абзацы.

Пояснения к тексту
1. digital hardware –оборудование цифровой обработки
2. software – программное обеспечение
3. value – ценность, значимость
4. to monitor - контролировать_
5. actuation - исполнение
6. actuators – исполнительный механизм
7. variables – переменные величины


1. The first computer control system went on line in an industrial plant in 1959. Since then, there have been remarkable advances in processing and transmitting information electronically. Developments in the technology of digital hardware?, software?, basic sensors and all forms of communication offer the potential for industrial control systems that are highly automated and provide improved operating performance.
2. The earliest applications of computer control were in the process industries. The process industries are those which change the composition of materials to produce metals of higher value.[3] Here automation is in some ways easier, and is fully developed. In process industries instruments are available to monitor [5] the continuous flow of a product and to send the data to the computer.
3. The important functions of the control system are measurement, control, actuation [5] and communication. Measurement refers to the sensing of variables such as flow rate, temperature, pressure, level, and chemical composition, and the transmission of the measurement to the controller. Control is the decision-making operation. It compares the measured state of the process with the desired conditions and decides how variables should be manipulated. Actuation is the means by which the operating variables are manipulated. Typical actuators [6] are valves, rheostats, switches and relays. Communication includes the display of information to the plant operators as well as the transmission of important variables [7] to the plant management.
4. The organization of a plant control system is comprised at different levels. The lowest level is occupied by the control computer. The next step is a supervisory computer. At the top level is the manager control computer, supplying the manager with current information about the manufacturing operations.
5. Improved communication are making it possible to use systems in which elements of control system are located throughout the plant and communicate with each other through networks. Communication over these networks is by a digital signal.

V. Прочитайте 5-й абзац текста и письменно ответьте на следующий вопрос:

How do elements of control system, located throughout the plant, communicate with each other?