Контрольная по английскому AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION 2

 

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Большая контрольная работа по английскому языку создана для тех, кто учится в технических вузах. В контрольной есть технические тексты, которые необходимо перевести на русский язык. Чтобы выполнить правильный перевод, воспользуйтесь техническим английским словарем.

 

Английский язык. AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION 2

 

Text
Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, в которых говорится:
а) об этапах работы, необходимых при производстве автомоби­лей;
б) о необходимости владения инженерами обширными знания­ми в разных областях науки и техники.
AUTOMOBILE PRODUCTION
Specialists in automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing cars, so they should know that the production of the automobile comprises the following phases:
1) Designing,
2) Working out the technology of manufacturing processes,
3) Laboratory tests,
4) Road tests,
5) Mass production (manufacturing).
Why is it necessary to know all these facts?
It is important to know them as before the automobile (car or truck) is put into mass production, it should be properly designed and the automobile must meet up-to-date requirements.
What are these requirements?
The automobile must have high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of maintenance and pleasant appearance.
In order to obtain all these qualities engineers should develop up-to-date methods of designing cars, using new types of resistant to corrosion light materials. Also it is important to know computer science because it is intended to shorten the time between designing and manufacturing. Computers offer quick and optimal solutions of problems. But before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are subjected to tests, first in the plant's laboratory, then the car undergoes a rigid quality control in road tests. Only then the car is put into mass production. Why are these tests required? What qualities are required of the automobile? The modern automobile must be rapid in acceleration, must have smooth acting clutch, silent gearbox, dependable brakes and steering system, as well as pleasant appearance. Also it must be comfortable and have all conveniences.

After - Text Section Word Study
Ex. 1. Найдите в каждом ряду слово, перевод которого дан в начале ряда
прочный, стойкий a) resistant, b) essential, с) empty, d) weak
требование a) degree, b) requirement, c) influence, d) quality
уход, содержание a) level, b) universe, c) maintenance, d) exercise
получать, добиваться a) to test, b) to agree, c) to happen, d) to obtain
внешний вид a) appearance, b) traffic, c) steam, d) weakness
коробка передач a) brakes, b) steering system, c) gearbox, d) clutch

Ex. 2, Переведите на английский язык
1. Специалисты в области машиностроения связаны с работой по дизайну и всеми этапами работы по производству автомобиля.
2. Автомобиль должен обладать высокой эффективностью, долгим сроком службы, безопасностью вождения, приятным внешним видом.
3. Для поддержания высоких качеств автомобиля инженер должен следовать современным методам в области дизайна, использовать новые виды материалов.
4. Компьютерные знания помогают сократить время, требуемое на проектирование, разработку автомобиля.
5. Перед запуском автомобиля в массовое производство его необходимо подвергнуть испытаниям.

Text Study
Ex. 1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What phases does the production of the automobile comprise?
2. What requirements must the automobile meet?
3. Why are cars subjected to road tests?
4. What qualities are required from the automobile?
5. Why is it important for the specialists in automobile industry to know computing methods?
Ex. 2, Закончите предложения, выбрав соответствующее окончание в правом столбце. Переведите полученные предложения на русский язык
1. Specialist in automobile industry deal with..
2. A car should be properly…
3. The automobile must have…
4. Computers offer…
5. But before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms…

1. high efficiency, long service life, driving safety, ease of maintenance and pleasant appearance.
2. quick and optimal solutions of problems.
3. are subjected to tests.
4. designed and must meet up-to-date requirements.
5. designing and manufacturing cars.

 

Ex. 3. Выразите свое мнение по следующим вопросам:
1. Why is it necessary constantly to improve the qualities of the automobile?
2. Is a car luxury or means of conveyance?

Grammar Review
Ex. 1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужную форму, вид, залог
1. But before the саг (to put) into mass production all its units and mechanisms (to subject) to tests.
2. The car (to undergo) a rigid quality control in road tests.
3. Only then the car (to put) into mass production.
4. The positive results (to obtain) until a more powerful apparatus was installed.
5. They (to determine) the main properties of the substance.

Ex. 2. Составьте предложение пользуясь следующими словами
1. solutions, quick, Computers, offer, and, of, problems, optimal.
2. Before, units, the, car, mechanisms, is, into, mass, production, all, subjected, its, put, and, are, to, tests.
3. The, modern, must, be, in, acceleration, automobile, rapid.

Text 
THE EARLY DAYS OF THE AUTOMOBILE
Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, в которых говорится:
а) о первых попытках изобрести механические транспортные средства;
The dream of a motor car is very old. One of the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. But the first self-propelled vehicle was constructed by the French military engineer Cugnot in 1763. He built a steam-driven engine which had three wheels, carried two passengers and ran at maximum speed of four miles. The carriage was a great achievement but it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient. The supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes and the carriage had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam.
б) о проблемах, связанных с работой первых паровых двигателей;
In 1825 a steam engine was built in Great Britain. The vehicle carried 18 passengers and covered 8 miles in 45 minutes. However, the progress of motor cars met with great opposition in Great Britain. Further development of the motor car lagged because of the restrictions resulting from legislative acts. Motoring really started in the country after the abolition of this act.
в) о дальнейших разработках в автомобильной промышленности.
From 1896 to 1900 was a period of the application of gasoline engines to motor cars in many countries. The first to perfect gasoline engine was N.Otto who introduced the four-stroke cycle of operations. By that time motor cars got a standard shape and appearance. The cars of that time were very small, two-seated with no roof, driven by an engine placed under the seat. Motorists had to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tyres, for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.

The dream of a motor car is very old. One of the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power was suggested by Isaac Newton. But the first self-propelled vehicle was constructed by the French military engineer Cugnot in 1763. He built a steam-driven engine which had three wheels, carried two passengers and ran at maximum speed of four miles. The carriage was a great achievement but it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient. The supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes and the carriage had to stop every 100 yards to make more steam.
In 1825 a steam engine was built in Great Britain. The vehicle carried 18 passengers and covered 8 miles in 45 minutes. However, the progress of motor cars met with great opposition in Great Britain. Further development of the motor car lagged because of the restrictions resulting from legislative acts. Motoring really started in the country after the abolition of this act.
From 1896 to 1900 was a period of the application of gasoline engines to motor cars in many countries. The first to perfect gasoline engine was N.Otto who introduced the four-stroke cycle of operations. By that time motor cars got a standard shape and appearance. The cars of that time were very small, two-seated with no roof, driven by an engine placed under the seat. Motorists had to carry large cans of fuel and separate spare tyres, for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.
Like most other great human achievements, the motor car is not the product of any single inventor. Gradually the development of vehicles driven by internal combustion engine - cars, as they had come to be known, led to the abolition of earlier restrictions. Huge capital began to flow into the automobile industry. From 1908 to 1924 the number of cars in the world rose from 200 thousand to 20 million; by 1960 it had reached 60 million. No other industry had ever developed at such a rate.

 

After - Text Section Word Study
Ex. 1. Найдите в каждом ряду слово, перевод которого дан в начале ряда
попытка a) quality, b) weakness, с) attempt, d) steam
колесо a) accident, b) universe, c) safety, d) wheel
обеспечивать a) to maintain, b) to supply, to happen, d) to agree
ограничение a) precision, b) restriction, c) traffic, d) experience
перевозочное средство a) vehicle, b) degree, c) level, d) influence
достижение a) knowledge, b) experience, c) achievement, d) attempt

Ex. 2. Переведите на английский язык
1. Одним из первых, кто попытался создать механическое транспортное средство, был Ньютон.
2. Скорость первого транспортного средства не превышала 4 миль в час.
3. Подача пара продолжалась только 15 минут.
4. Дальнейшая работа по созданию автомобиля была задер­жана,
5. Первые автомобили вмещали двух человек.
6. Огромный капитал начал вливаться в автомобильную промышленность.

Text Study
Ех.1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. Who suggested the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power?
2. What can you say about the first stream-driven engine carriage constructed in 1763?
3. When was a stream engine built in Great Britain?
4. Who was the first to perfect gasoline engine, introduced the four-stroke cycle of operations?
5. Why did motorists have to carry some cans of fuel and spare tyres with them for that time motor cars?

Ex. 2. Закончите предложения, выбрав соответствующее окончание в правом столбце. Переведите полученные предложения на русский язык
1. Cugnot built a steam-driven engine which… 1. in Great Britain
2. The first carriage was a great achievement but… 2. had three wheels and carried
two passengers
3. The supply of steam lasted only 15 minutes and… 3. automobile industry
4. Huge capital began to flow into… 4. it was far from perfect and extremely inefficient.
5. In 1825 a steam engine was built… 5. the carriage had to stop every 100 yards to make
more steam.

Grammar Review
Ex. 1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужную форму, вид, залог
1. One of the earliest attempts to propel a vehicle by mechanical power (to suggest) by Isaac Newton.
2. The carriage (to be) a great achievement but it (to be) far from perfect and extremely inefficient.
3. Motorists (to have; carry) large cans of fuel and separate spare tyres, for there were no repair or filling stations to serve them.
4. Like most other great human achievements, the motor car (to be) not the product of any single inventor.
5. From 1908 to 1924 the number of cars in the world (to rise) from 200 thousand to 20 million.

Ex. 2. Составьте предложения пользуясь следующими словами:
1. In, was, a, steam, built, in, engine, Great Britain, 1825.
2. small, of, that, were, very, The, two-seated, with, no, roof, time, cars.
3. shape, got, that, time, motor cars, a, standard, and, appearance, By.

UNIT IV
Pre -Text Section
Word Study

Ex. 1. Составьте словосочетания, используя слова обеих колонок; переведите их на русский язык
subject to draughts
the system traps chlorine-free refrigerants
operate with an exceptionally large amount of stress
to prevent to suit your own size and requirements
to be fully adjustable all dust particles

Text


IT ALL BEGAN WITH A STAR


Part II
Прочитайте текст и найдите абзацы, в которых говорится о:
а) различных направлениях разрабатываемых компанией Мерседес-Бенц, по улучшению комфорта, как для водителя, так и пассажиров салона «S-600» класса.
In developing the S-class, we, at Mercedes-Benz, thought primarily of those men and women whose heavy involvement in their jobs subjects them to an exceptionally large amount of stress. They need a car that offers above-average stress-relief for both driver and passengers. Just how the S-class provides this is shown below.

Comfort
In developing the S-class, we, at Mercedes-Benz, thought primarily of those men and women whose heavy involvement in their jobs subjects them to an exceptionally large amount of stress. They need a car that offers above-average stress-relief for both driver and passengers. Just how the S-class provides this is shown below.
Electret dust filter
To provide clean air in the S-class, its ventilation system is equipped with a large-area filter made of electret fibre matting. Allergy sufferers in particular can now take a deep breath, as this system traps all dust particles and pollen grains larger than five microns in size. Even the smallest particles are trapped with high efficiency.
Automatic climate control
The automatic climate control system, which is standard in all S-class models, operates with chlorine-free refrigerants, it maintains, precisely and constantly, the desired interior temperature inside the car. Air conditioning and heat output, air volume and air distribution are controlled automatically by an electronic unit. Of course, manual adjustments are possible at any time. And so that everyone feels comfortable, the temperature can be set differently for the left and right sides of the car. The temperature setting wheels have additional "MIN" and "MAX" positions which allow the electronic temperature regulating system to be overridden. A new feature is the increased amount of adjustment of the center vents on the dashboard, which are now also incorporated into the separate left/right temperature control system. This allows both driver and front passenger to set the temperature they prefer, two buttons located on the vents allow you to choose between unheated air from outside and temperature-controlled air. And to prevent draughts in the S-class, we have reduced further the speed of the air-flow.
Activated charcoal filter
As a supplement to the automatic climate control system, the S-class can be fitted with an optionally available activated charcoal filter. This not only removes dust from incoming ambient air, but also removes various pollutants like ozone and unpleasant odours. The filter system can be switched on and off at will, using a switch on the center console. The activated charcoal filter is part of the standard equipment for the Mercedes S 600.
Insulated windows
The S-class is the first car in the world to have double-glazed side windows as standard. Two panes of safety glass, each 3 mm thick, are separated by a hermetically sealed 3 mm air gap. The air between the panes is dehumidified. The major advantages are the near-elimination of misting as well as better temperature and noise insulation. Comfort is further ensured by the all-round tinted glass with an integral sun filter. Both the laminated safety glass rear screen and the insulated windows are standard equipment.
Heated windscreen wipers
To keep the windscreen wiper system ready for use at all times, even during a tough winter, all three twin screenwash nozzles, the hoses and the fluid reservoir are heated.
Seats
The seats in the S-class are fully adjustable to suit your own size and requirements. The backrest of the driver's seat incorporates a lumbar support as standard. This consists of an air chamber which can be adjusted via a pressure governor, so that driving in the S-class is always very comfortable and non-tiring In addition, the front seat cushion can be adjusted longitudinally. A multi-contour backrest is available as an optional extra to cater for any personal preferences or orthopaedic requirements. Both the backrest's contours and surface firmness can be adjusted, independently of each other. The mechanical height adjustment for the driver's seat operates directly, without any longitudinal movement of the seat. You can thus correct the height of the driver's seat without having to change the distance from the steering wheel and the pedals.
Front axle carrier
To enhance ride comfort, we have equipped the S-class cars with a special front axle carrier. This supports the front engine mountings, the springs, the steering gear, the underfloor panelling and the lower part of the front suspension assembly. Four large rubber bushes between the axle carrier and the body-work have the effect of insulating the suspension from the bodywork and minimising the transmission of audible and physical vibrations.
Cruise control
The cruise control which comes as a standard feature in all S-class models with automatic transmission enables you to maintain a constant speed on long journeys. И makes driving more relaxed and even more comfortable. All you need to do is set the desired speed and the cruise control will maintain it exactly. As soon as you start to brake it is automatically switched off.

After - Text Section Word Study
Ex. 1- Найдите в каждом ряду слово, перевод которого дан в начале ряда
развивать a) agree, b) compare, с) develop, d) know
предотвращать a) make, b) create, c) cover, d) prevent
регулируемый a) great, b) adjustable, c) excellent, d) difficult
рессора, пружина a) light, b) gimmick, c) darkness, d) spring
рулевой механизм a) steering gear, b) steering column, c) engine mountings d) front suspension
assembly
поверхность a) device, b) surface, c) interval, d) engine

Ex. 2. Переведите на английский язык
1. Разработчики автомобиля Мерседес-Бенц класса «S», прежде всего, учитывают то, что люди, пользующиеся этим авто­мобилем, подвергаются повседневным стрессам.
2. Необходимая температура внутри салона может поддер­живаться как со стороны водителя, так и со стороны пассажира.
3. Все сиденья автомобиля данного класса регулируются в соответствии с вашими требованиями.
4. Все, что вам нужно - это установить необходимую скорость, и она будет поддерживаться автоматически на всем пути следо­вания.

Text Study
Ex. 1. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What can you say about electret dust filter and activated charcoal filter?
2. In what way does the company make a contribution to environmental protection?
3. What is the role of a special front axle carrier?
4. Thanks to what is driving in the S-class always very comfortable and non-tiring?
5. What can help the driver to maintain a constant speed on long journeys?
6. In what way does the automatic climate control system operate?

Ex. 2. Закончите предложения, выбрав соответствующее окончание в правом столбце. Переведите полученные предложения на русский язык.
1. The seats in the S-class are fully adjustable…
2. The mechanical height adjustment for the driver's seat…
3. To enhance ride comfort... 
4. The cruise control enables you…
5. The automatic climate control system operates… 
6. To provide clean air, in its ventilation system is equipped with…

1. a large-area filter is made of electret fibre matting.
2. with chlorine-free refrigerants.
3. to suit your own size and requirements.
4. operates directly.
5. to maintain a constant speed on long journeys.
6. the S-class is equipped with a special front axle carrier.

Ex. 3, Выразите свое мнение по следующим вопросам:
1. What are the latest refinements in the body design of Mercedes-Benz the "S"-class?
2, What engineering advances have contributed to safer driving of the car?
Grammar Review
Ex. 1. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в нужную форму, вид, залог
1. They need а саг that (to offer) above-average stress-relief for both driver and passengers.
2. The mechanical height adjustment for the driver's seat (to operate) directly, without any longitudinal movement of the seat.
3. To enhance ride comfort, we (to equip) the S-class cars with a special front axle carrier.
4. This (to support) the front engine mountings, the springs, the steering gear, the underfloor panelling and the lower part of the front suspension assembly.
5. It (to make) driving more relaxed and even more comfortable.
Ex. 2. Составьте предложение пользуясь следующими словами
1. То, ventilation, system, in, the, S-class, its, is, provide, equipped, with, air, a, large, area, filter, clean.
2. speed, The, enables, in, constant, all, S-class models, you, to, maintain, a, cruise control.

THE CENTRE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS
The Polytechnic Museum was founded in 1872 on the initiative of progressive Russian scientists. Such men of science, technology and culture as Timiryazev, Zhukovsky, Yablochkov, Lodygin, and many other gave popular lectures in the halls of the Museum.
The Polytechnic Museum of today has very extensive ties with scientists and engineers in all branches of science and technology. It is visited by 1,300,000 to 1,400,000 persons every year.
The halls of the Museum cover 10,000 square metres and have over 25,000 exhibits on display.
The exhibits are not lifeless collections: they are shown dynamically. Real machines and equipment, models and illuminated diagrams illustrate all the technological processes, and thus the work of a complex device can be seen and more easily understood.
The hall of atomic power engineering describes in popular form the physical structure of matter, the fundamentals of radioactivity in nuclear reactions, and of the generation of atomic power for peace purposes.
Attention in the chemical section is centered on the automatic production of chemical products: synthetic ammonia from natural gas, chlorine and caustic soda via the electrolysis of common salt, and sulphuric acid.
The polymer exhibition covers all the materials produced including teflon.
A unique object can also be seen at the exhibition - it is a one-tenth natural-size model of the chemical laboratory in which Lomonosov worked in 1748.
Many visitors are particularly interested in an operating model 1/25 natural size of a blast-furnace shop that shows the charging of raw materials and the tapping of the metal.
The attention of visitors is attracted by the various cybernetic installations and illuminated diagrams that illustrate the working principles of computing machines. There are always many people in the section of radio-electronics and electric communications. Popov's radio receiving set and telephone can be seen here, as well as the apparatuses of Schilling and Hughes, Edison' photograph and other rare exhibits. Many visitors are interested in the latest radio and television sets.
The Polytechnic Museum is very popular and it is a great help to pupils, students, teachers, engineers and many other people who are in interested in science and engineering.

1. When was the Polytechnic Museum founded?
2. What Russian scientists can be named as its founders?
3. How many persons visit the Polytechnic Museum every year?
4. How many exhibits does the Museum have on display?
5. What can a visitor see and learn in the halls of the Museum?
6. What can a visitor see and understand in the hall of atomic power engineering?
7. What can a visitor see in the chemical section of the Museum?
8.What size is the model of the chemical laboratory in which Lomonosov worked?

I. Напишите основные формы следующих глаголов: to see, to understand, to find, to go, to attract.

II. Поставьте предложения в вопросительной форме:
1. This museum is visited every day.
2. Lomonosov has founded the first chemical laboratory in Russia.
3. This diagram shows the increase of productivity of the plant.
III. Сделайте перевод предложений.
1. Модели и диаграммы должны быть помещены (to place) на втором этаже.
2. Thousands of school-children, students, workers have visited the Polytechnic Museum this week.