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Banking and Finance
Banking and financial market operations in Britain involve a number of special institutions and financial markets which, as a result of deregulation and new legislative frameworks, are increasingly integrating. Many banking and financial institutions are unique to Britain and offer highly specialized services to individuals, companies and sovereign bodies all over the world. Commercial banks are institutions authorized under the Banking Act 1987 as deposit-taking institutions involved in the classic banking business of tailing deposits and lending money, both in the retail and wholesale markets. In Britain, they include the retail banks and institutions which ffer banking services. In June 1994 there were 518 authorized banks including retail banks, merchant banks, branches of overseas banks, discount houses and banking subsidiaries of both banking and non-banking institutions from Britain and overseas.
The Bank of England in the heart of the City of London is Britain's central bank. It is banker to the commercial banks and to the Government; manager of the National Debt; «lender of last resort»; regulator of monetary and credit conditions; and, not least, supervisor of the banking system.
Retail banks primarily serve individuals and small to medium-sized businesses. The major retail banks operate through more than 12,148 branches offering cash deposit and withdrawal facilities and systems for transferring funds. They provide current account facilities, including interest-bearing accounts, deposit accounts, various types of loan arrangement, and offer an extending range of financial services.
Building societies started in the late 18th century to pool money to build houses and to buy land. They currently compete with the retail banks to attract savings from and provide mortgage finance for the personal sector. Today, they hold more savings than the other deposit-taking institutions. Building societies are «mutual» institutions, owned by their savers and borrowers. Since the Building Societies Act 1986 the societies have been able to provide a wider range of services.
The discount houses are unique to Britain and occupy a central position in the British monetary system. They act as intermediaries between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector promoting an orderly flow of funds between the authorities and the banks.
Choose the right variant (Выберите правильный вариант):
1) Britain ____ known for its unique financial institutions.
a. are b. is c. to be d. been
2) British financial institutions ____ services to sovereign bodies all over the world.
a. suggest b. suggests c. offer d. offers
3) The Bank of England is situated in ____ City of London.
a. - b. the c. a d. this
4) The Bank of England is ____ of monetary conditions in the country.
a. regulate b. regulators c. regulates d. regulator
5) What bank finances commercial banks in Great Britain? - ____________
a. The Bank of England is. b. Banks of England.
c. The Bank of England does. d. Any bank.
6) What powers do Commercial Banks have? - __________________
a. To serve only retail clients.
b. To work only in the wholesale market.
c. To do classic banking business.
d. To finance the government.
7) What Act authorizes banks to do business? - _________________.
a. The Banking Act of 1987. b. The Banking Act of 1987 did.
c. The Banking Act 1987 does. d. Banking Act of 1987.
8) ____ merchant banks ____ to commercial banks?
a. does...refer b. do...refer c. does...referred d. do...referring
9) ____ retail banks widely spread in Great Britain?
a. is b. are c. do d. does
10) The major retail banks operate through numerous branches, ____?
a. aren’t they b. are they c. do they d. don’t they
11) Banks provide current ____ facilities both to individuals and businesses.
a. accountant b. account c. accounted d. accounts
12) Does the classic banking business ____ tailing deposits and lending money?
a. do...involve b. does...involve
c. do...to involve d. does...involved
13) Retail banks offer ____ extending range of financial services.
a. - b. a c. an d. these
14) When ____ building societies started in Great Britain?
a. do...start b. did...start c. did...started d. does...start
15) One of the functions of Building Societies is ____ mortgage finance for people.
a. provided b. provide c. to provide d. provides
16) Do Building Societies hold ____ savings than any other deposit-taking institutions?
a. much b. many c. a lot d. more
17) In Great Britain an orderly flow of funds between the authorities and the banks ____ by Discount Houses.
a. promote b. is promoted c. promotes d. are promoted
18) What institutions do building societies compete ____?
a. at b. through c. with d. from
19) What institutions occupy a central place in the British monetary system? - ______.
a. Public Houses do. b. Discount Houses are.
c. The Prime Minister’s office does. d. Discount Houses do.
20) ___ there any intermediaries between the Bank of England and the rest of the banking sector?
a. is b. be c. been d. are
21) The Bank of England is supervisor of the banking system.
a. a b. - c. that d. this
22) What ____ banking operations involve in Great Britain?
a. do b. to do c. does d. doing
23) Commercial Banks are institutions ____ to do classic banking business.
a. authority b. authorize c. authorities d. authorized
24) What bodies ____ banking services offered by?
a. is...offered b. are... offered c. are...offering d. is...offering
25) What financial institutions undergo the process of integration in Great Britain? - Banks and financial markets ____.
a. do b. integrate c. are doing d. are integrating
26) The Bank of England is manager of the ____ debt.
a. nation b. nations c. national d. nationality
27) Building societies ____ savings from the personal sector.
a. attraction b. attracting c. attract d. attracts
28) What financial institutions ____ with banking and financial market operations?
a. deals b. dealing c. deal d. dealer
29) Retail banks primarily serve individuals.
a. a b. the c. - d. that
30) Since the Building Societies Act 1986 Building Societies in Great Britain ____ to provide a wide range of services.
a. are able b. to be able c. were able d. have been able