Помощь с английским
Если вы плохо разбираетесь с грамматикой английского языка, то вам, вероятно, потребуется помощь с английским языком.
Task 1. Письменно переведите следующие сложные предложения, содержащие придаточные условия.
1. If the parties want to settle their matter out of court they may use a mediation procedure.
2. If it weren’t for the police, who arrived just in time, the robbers would get away with the spoils.
3. If you had learnt the subject you would have passed your exams with a good or even excellent result.
4. If everybody obeyed the law, commits no crime then there will be no need for police and prosecution.
5. If he hadn’t participated in that street riot he wouldn’t be incarcerated.
Task 2. Письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая перевод независимого причастного оборота.
1. Today many employer demand that their employees are computer literate, with the Microsoft Office programmes being a must.
2. The people in Russia are not intolerant, many of them are just being irritated by all the fuss the “minorities” produce.
3. Having finished all his current projects, he went on vacation with a light heart.
4. With all that events falling on him, it is not a surprise that he broke down and did what he did in sheer desperation.
5. Having interrogated the suspect the police were sure that he was not alone and his accomplices are still on the loose.
Task 3. Переведите предложения, учитывая разные возможности перевода герундия и герундиальных оборотов.
1. Usually the President of the USA before taking up his duties swears on the Bible during the inauguration.
2. They did really immense work for securing order and enforcing law in the district.
3. Various data like fingerprints and the DNA are used for establishing criminal’s identity.
4. Stealing means that you take something not belonging to you and the owner is unaware of you action.
5. His using of unloaded gun during the robbery is legally the same as using the loaded weapon, you know.
Task 4. Письменно переведите предложения, содержащие объектный инфинитивный оборот (The Objective Infinitive Construction)
1. The freight forwarder is expected to absolve himself of the guarantee after providing that the goods reached their destination.
2. The judge found that the terms of releasing the suspect on bail to be acceptable.
3. Knowing him to be the only policeman, who spend a lot of time searching for the evidences of Nick’s innocence, I decided to help him.
4. All the members of the jury waited for the defendant to plead non-guilty but he kept silence as if proving the opposite.
Task 5. Письменно переведите предложения, содержащие субъектный инфинитивный оборот (The Subjective Infinitive Construction)
1. The four members of the jury could be seen to open their mouths looking at the defendant’s behavior.
2. Mr. Bunting was not supposed to know the details of the case, but during the trial he surprised me prompting every next word of the attorney.
3. There appears to be many categories of penal institutions, taking part in the experiment.
Task 6. Письменно переведите предложения, принимая во внимание правила согласование времен (Sequence of Tenses)
1. The police officer first inquired if he could ask the tenant a few questions.
2. It was understood that the police wanted to speak to Mr. Norton in connection with a number of his financial dealings.
3. I had a suspicion that she had forgotten to mention that I was waiting.
4. The people she met seemed to know where she had been, what she had been doing.
5. I had feared that my companion would talk too much, but it was soon plain that there was no such danger.
Task 7. Прочитайте и устно переведите приведенный ниже текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-4 абзацы текста.
Read and translate the following text.
A constitution is the political and ideological structure within which a system of law operates. Most countries have a formal written constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced. A constitution is more than a mechanical set of ground rules. It is a mirror reflecting the national soul. It reflects those values the country regards as important, and shows how these values will be protected.
The British constitution has evolved over many centuries. Unlike the constitutions of most other countries, it is not contained in any single document: there is no written constitution. Instead, it is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. One of the reasons for having special constitutional laws is to prevent governments from becoming too powerful.
In Britain Parliament is vested with legislative powers and is the supreme authority. Parliament makes laws. Executive branch is represented by the government, which executes laws; i. e. puts them into effect. Law courts constitute the judicial branch, they interpret and apply laws.
Parliament. The British Parliament, like parliaments in other countries, is often referred to as ‘the Legislature’ – the body which makes laws. Its essential function could probably be best described as ‘to discuss what the Government has done, is doing and intends to do”. New laws can only come into force when they have passed through Parliament.
The three elements which make up British Parliament are the Queen, the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons. The agreement of all three is normally required for legislation.
To become an Act of Parliament a bill must be passed in the House of Commons, adopted in the House of Lords and finally signed by the Queen. Any member of the House of Commons may introduce a bill (a draft law). In the House a bill must pass three readings. If a bill is passed by the Commons it goes to the Lords.
The House of Lords has similar procedures. Today the Lords cannot reject bills passed by the Commons but can only delay the passage of a bill. If the Lords agree to a bill it will be placed before the Queen for signature. When the Queen signs it, it becomes an Act of Parliament.
Government. The party which has majority in the House of Commons forms the government and may hold office for five years. The leader of the majority party becomes the Prime Minister. Her Majesty’s Government is responsible for the administration of national affairs. Government consists of about seventy politicians. There are departmental (in charge of government departments) and non-departmental ministers, holders of various traditional offices, the latter performing any duties the Prime Minister may wish to give them. Departmental ministers are usually in the Cabinet. The Cabinet is composed of about twenty ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, although the number can vary. The functions of the Cabinet are initiating and deciding on policy, the supreme control of government and the coordination of government departments. No change of policy of any importance would be considered without the Cabinet sanction. The Cabinet meets in private and its proceedings are confidential. The Cabinet is also the Court of Appeal.
The Judiciary. The judiciary is independent of the executive; its judgments are not subject to ministerial direction or control. The Prime Minister recommends the highest judicial appointments to the Crown. The Lord Chancellor is head of the judiciary except in Scotland (although Britain is a unitary state, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland all have their own legal systems). Lord Chancellor’s responsibilities include administration of all courts, judicial appointments and appointment of magistrates.
Speak on the British Constitution.
1. The Constitution itself as the supreme law: the political and ideological structure, to make and enforce laws, to reflect the national soul, to protect the values, to contain, to make up, to alter a convention, to prevent, to vest with powers, to be the supreme authority, to put into effect, to constitute, to interpret laws, to apply laws.
2. Parliament: to require for legislation, to pass laws, to adopt, to sign, to introduce a bill, the first reading, to debate, to give detailed consideration, to amend, to reject.
3. Government: to hold office, to be responsible for, to create, to abolish, to transfer, to be composed of, to have the last word, the Cabinet sanction, the Court of Appeal.
4. Judiciary: to be independent, judgments control, to recommend, the Lord Chancellor, legal system, administration of courts, judicial appointments, the appointment of magistrates.