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Контрольные по английскому
Правильно выполненная контрольная говорит о том, что у человека хорошие знания английского.
I. Read and translate the text.
1. Ethics is the system of moral principles, rules of conduct and morality of choices that individuals make.
2. Business ethics is the application of moral standards to business situations.
3. Business ethics has become a matter of public concern.
4. All business people face ethical issues daily, and they stem from a variety of sources.
5. Although some types of issues arise infrequently, others occur regularly.
6. Let s take a closer look at several ethical issues.
7. Fairness and Honesty.
Fairness and honesty in business are two important ethical concerns.
Besides obeying all lows and regulations, business people should refrain from deceiving, misrepresenting, or intimidating others.
8. Organizational Relationship.
A business person may be tempted to place his or her personal welfare above the welfare of the organization.
Relationship with customers and coworkers often create ethical problems - since confidential information should be secret and all obligations should be honoured. Unethical behavior in these areas includes not meeting one s obligations in a mutual agreement, and pressuring others to behave unethically.
9. Conflict of Interest.
Conflict of interest result when a business person takes advantage of a situation for his or her own personal interest rather than for the employer s or organization s interest.
Such conflict may occur when payments and gifts make their way into business deals.
A wise rule to remember is that anything given to a person that might unfairly influence that person’s business decisions is a bribe, and all bribes are unethical.
Business communications, especially advertising, can present ethical questions.
False and misleading advertising is illegal and unethical, and it can infuriate customers. Sponsors of advertisements aimed at children must be especially careful to avoid misleading messages.
Advertisers of health-related products must also take precautions against deception.
11. Relationships. Business ethics involves relationships between a firm and its investors, customers, employees, creditors and competitors.
Each group has specific concerns, and each exerts some type of pressure on management.
Investors want management to make financial decisions that will boost sales, profits, and returns on their investments.
Customers expect a firm s products to be safe, reliable, and reasonably priced.
- Employees want to be treated fairly in hiring, promotion, and compensation
- Creditors require bills to be paid in time and the accounting information furnished by the firm to be accurate.
Competitors expect the firm s marketing activities to portray its products truthfully.
12. Business ethics. Although there are exceptions, it is relatively easy for management to respond in an ethical manner when business is good and profit is high.
However, concern for ethics can dwindle under the pressure of low or declining profit.
In such circumstances, ethical behaviour may be compromised.
Expanding international trade has also led to an ethical dilemma for many firms operating in countries where bribes and payoffs are an accepted part of business.
In the U. S. government agencies have prosecuted several companies for «illegal payoffs», in spite of the fact that there is as yet no international code of business ethics. Unit stronger international laws or ethics codes are in place, such cases will be difficult to investigate and effective prosecution is not possible.
Encouraging ethical behavior
13. Ethics. When no company policy exists, a quick check if behaviour is ethical is to see if others- coworkers, customers, suppliers, and the like- approve of it.
Openness will often create trust and help build solid business relationships.
What affects a person s inclination to make either ethical or unethical decisions is not entirely clear.
There general sets of factors influence the ethics of decisions making.
First, an individual s values, attitudes, experiences, and knowledge influence decision making. Second, the absence of an employers official code of behaviors and values of others, such as coworkers, supervisor, and company official, affect the ethics of a person.
14. Ethics and etiquette. There is some difference between business ethics and etiquette. Etiquette means rules for formal relations or polite social behavior among people in a society or a profession.
If you are a manager you should stick to the following rules in your everyday activities.
- Don t order, ask and be polite.
- Remember that people work with you, not for you. They like to be treated as associates, not slaves.
- Keep your promises, both important and less important promises.
- Criticize, if you must, only in private-and do it objectively. Never criticize anyone in public or in anger.
You should say «Good morning» when you come in and «please» and «Thank you» at every opportunity.
public concern - общественная значимость
face - сталкиваться
stem - возникать, происходить
closer - более тщательно
refrain (from) - воздерживаться (от)
misrepresent - представлять в ложном свете
intimidate - запугивать
coworker - сотрудник, коллега
meet obligation - выполнять обязательства
take advantage (of) - воспользоваться
make way - проникать
bribe - взятка
infuriate - приводить в ярость
aim (at) - предназначать (для)
health-related - относящийся к здоровью
take precautions - принять меры предосторожности
involve - включать
boost - повышать
hire - нанимать
furnish - предоставлять
in an ethical manner - этически
dwindle - уменьшаться, ухудшаться
decline - понижаться
payoff - оплата, вознаграждение
prosecute - преследовать в судебном порядке
code - кодекс
code of ethics - моральный кодекс
be in place - вводить
encourage - поощрять
supplier - поставщик
inclination - склонность
stick (of) - придерживаться (чего-либо)
II. Find the Russian Equivalents:
Rules of conduct, morality of choices, ethical issues, fairness and honesty, lows and regulations, personal welfare, relationship, coworker, unethical behavior, mutual agreement, business deal, payments and gifts, bribe, false and misleading, advertising, misleading message, advertiser, health-related product, deception, precaution, precaution against deception, return on the investment, safe and reliable products, gifts, accurate accounting information, illegal payoff, low and declining profit, international trade, ethics code, effective prosecution, trust, ethical decision making, individual s values, deceive, misrepresent, intimidate, obey, create, meet obligations, press, approve (of), affect, take advantage (of), investigate, respond.
III. Find the English Equivalents:
Справедливость и честность, законы и постановления, правила поведения, этичное поведение, неэтичное поведение, взаимоотношения с сотрудниками, личное благосостояние, деловая этика, конфиденциальная информация, конфликт интересов, ложное и вводящее в заблуждение рекламирование, реклама, рекламодатель, взятка, обман, оплата, предосторожность, деловая сделка, конкурент, низка прибыль, моральный кодекс, безопасная и надежная продукция, доверие, достоинства личности, сталкивать с этическими вопросами, обманывать, запугивать, представлять в ложном света, выполнять обязательства, оказывать давление на руководство, создавать доверие, воспользоваться (чем-либо), воздерживаться от обмана, принятие этических решений.
IV. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text:
1. Fairness and ... in business are two important ethical ....
2. A business person may be tempted to place his/her personal ... above the welfare of others.
3. A conflict of interest results when a business person ... of a situation for his or her own personal interest rather than for the employer s or organization s interest.
4. Anything given to a person that might unfairly influence that persons business decision is a ... and all ... are unethical.
5. Business people should refrain from deceiving, misrepresenting, or ... others.
6. Employees want to be treated ... in hiring, promotion, and ....
7. Concern for ethics can dwindle under the pressure of low or declining ....
8. False and ... advertising is illegal and ....
9. Government agencies have prosecuted several companies for ... in spite of the fact that there is as yet no international code of business ethics.
V. Answer the questions:
1. What is ethics?
2. Give the definition of business ethics.
3. What are two important ethical concerns?
4. What can you say about false and misleading?
5. What do employees want in their relationship with management?
6. Why is effective prosecution of «illegal payoffs» difficult in international trade?
7. State the difference between ethics and etiquette.