Контрольные по английскому дают студенту необходимый опыт. В контрольных есть задания на повторение слов и грамматических правил.
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.
1. Justice in this country to be administered equally by judges of ten depends on the sum of money a person has.
2. We believe the prevention of crime to be one of the main functions of militia.
3. Criminality is considered to be a social phenomenon.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов.
1. He was seen looking for something.
2. The district courts being the primary link of the judiciary, most of the criminal and civil cases are tried by these courts.
3. The entrance exams having been passed successfully, he became a student of the University of Consumer Co-operatives.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод условных предложений.
1. If I met an English customs official I would ask him a few questions about similar.
2. If the consignor had wanted to ship cigarettes from Poland to France he would have used the same scheme, to my mind.
3. If you say that again, I’ll repeat it.
IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующий текст.
COMMON AND CONTINENTAL LAW
Each country in the world has its own system of law. There are two main traditions of law in the world. One is based on English Common law. The other tradition is Known as Continental, or Roman law.
Common law, or case law system, differs from Continental law, as it has developed gradually throughout history. It is not the result of government attempts to codify every legal relation. Customs and court rulings have been as important as statutes (government legislation). Judges do not merely apply the law in some cases. They make law, and their interpretations may become precedents for other courts.
Before William of Normandy invaded England in 1066 no law was common to the whole kingdom. The Norma Kings sent travelling judges around the country and gradually a common law “developed. Uniform application”, of the law throughout the country was promoted by the gradual development of the doctrine of precedent.
The doctrine of precedent is still a central feature of modern common law systems. Even when governments make new laws – statutes, they are interpreted by the counts in order to fit particular cases and these interpretations become new precedents.
Continental systems codified legal systems have resulted from attempts by governments to produce a set of codes so that the state could govern every legal aspect of a citizen’s life. When the law makers were codifying their legal systems, they looked to the example of Revolutionary and Napoleon France, whose legislators wanted to break with previous.
The law makers were also influenced by the model of the Canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, but the most important models were the codes produced in the seventh century under the direction of the Roman Emperor Justinian. Versions of Roman law Lad long influenced many parts of Europe but had little impact on English law.
Common law – общее право, обычное право, некодифицированное право.
precedent – прецедент.
V. Прочтите и устно переведите. Письменно ответьте на следующие вопросы.
Thank you for your letter enquiring about our range of Christmas toys. Our catalogues and export price-list are enclosed.
Payment is made on the last day of the month in which the goods are delivered; we allow a 5% discount if payment is made 15 days after the date of the invoice. We allow a 15% discount for order of 1,000 Pounds or more and 30% for orders of 5,000 Pounds or more.
All the prices are quoted fob Liverpool.
We would like to draw your attention to the fact all the items are available now.
We shall be glad to send you samples of any specific items which interest you.
We look forward to hearing from you and we will be pleased to give you any further information you may require.
What goods are the Buyers interested in?
What documents are enclosed with the letter?
When is payment expected?