Английский язык изучают во всех странах мира.
Контрольные по английскому
Вы можете выполнять контрольные работы по английскому языку, чтобы повторить пройденные когда-то темы. Или вы можете решать задания контрольной работы, просто для того, чтобы узнать, где у вас есть пробелы по грамматике или лексике.
1. Переведите предложения, определите функции слова one:
1. In the English legal system a practicing lawyer must hold one of two professions.
2. One must remember that a juror should keep an open eye all through the trial.
3. One must take into account that the young man accused of stealing a watch will be tried by a Juvenile Court.
4. A court of equity is one which administers justice according to the rules and principles of equity.
5. A court of appellate jurisdiction is one which reviews cases removed by appeal from a lower court.
6. One of the distinctive features of the American system of Government is the power of judicial review, which enables the federal courts to rule on the constitutionality of legislative & executive acts.
2. Переведите предложения, укажите функцию слов that, those:
1. The bodies of government in the United Kingdom are: those of the legislature, those of the executive and those of the judiciary.
2. That is the man that told me about it.
3. In our country only those juveniles whose antisocial behaviour becomes dangerous are deprived of freedom.
4. The population of India is greater than that of Japan.
3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение; определите тип бессоюзных придаточных:
1. You haven't told us anything about the decision the court passed yesterday.
2. The President approved the new law the Parliament had adopted.
3. This article is directly related to the information we are looking for.
4. We think he will never drive in excess of the speed limit.
5. We know the job of a juror is to listen to evidence and to decide upon guilt or innocence of the accused.
4. Прочтите текст.
1. A constitution is the political and ideological structure within which a system of laws operates. Most countries have a formal written Constitution describing how laws are to be made and enforced.
2. One of the reasons for having special constitutional laws is to prevent governments from becoming too powerful and from interfering too much in the lives of individuals. As a check upon over powerful government most modern constitutions have adopted the principle of separation of powers, developed in the 18th century by the French political philosopher Montesquieu.
3. Montesquieu argued that the functions of the state could be divided into policy formulation and direction (executive), lawmaking (legislative), and interpretation and application of the law (judicial).To stop governments from becoming too powerful these functions should be carried out by separate institutions, and there should be a balance between them. In the United States, for example, the president (executive) is elected by the people and attempts to carry out his policy promises through a presidential office of advisers. The Constitution gives him many important powers, such as control of the armed forces and appointment of Supreme Court justices, but many of his decisions and all new legislation must be approved by a majority in Congress (legislature), which is also elected by the people. Many presidents have had important policies blocked by Congress. The Supreme Court (judiciary) has the task of interpreting laws which have been disputed in lower courts, and of deciding whether a law passed by Congress or by one of the individual states is in keeping with the Constitution.
4. As well as defining the powers of government, most constitutions describe the fundamental rights of citizens. These usually include general declarations about freedom and equality. Among these rights are the freedom of religion, speech, and the press, the right of peaceful assembly, and the right to petition the government to correct wrongs.
5. Britain is unusual because its constitution is not found in a formal written document. Instead, the constitutional rights of citizens and the powers of government are found in various case-law rulings, statutes, and even in traditions. For example, the important constitutional principle that the king or queen must approve any legislation passed by parliament is simply an unwritten tradition that has gradually developed over the last three hundred years. There is a debate in Britain about whether citizens rights would be better guaranteed by a written constitution, or at least a bill of rights. Some people argue that the government has too much freedom and that it is too easy to change the constitution since all that is needed is a new statute or even a change in traditional procedure. Others argue that the flexibility of an unwritten constitution is a good thing, that the lack of a written constitution has not stood in the way of a long tradition of individual liberty in Britain, and that many countries with constitutions which look liberal on the surface suffer from oppressive governments which simply find ways to ignore constitutional rights.
6. It can be difficult to compare the legal freedoms of countries with different cultures and economic levels, but some comparison is possible since many countries have similar constitutional provisions and claim similar aims. We can, for example, consider how effective the provision of separation of powers is. Ferdinand Marcos provides a typical case of over centralized power; he came to power with wide popular support and many reforming ideas but steadily reduced the rights of Philippine citizens and his family took over most of the executive, legislative and judicial functions of the state.
7. We can also consider the right of citizens to say and write what they want and to take part in public meetings and demonstrations. In Britain, the 1986 Public Order Act requires advance notice of peaceful protests, even if they do not obstruct other people in any way. In addition, the police may order the protesters to move or break up if they anticipate serious disruption of community life. These laws are more restrictive than those in most European countries.
8. Another area to consider is the ease with which an individual may obtain restitution for a wrong a public body has committed against him. In English law, the principle of judicial review enables a court to overturn a decision made by a government ministry that acted illegally or irrationally or beyond its authorized powers.
5. Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений: принцип разделения полномочий; принцип судебного контроля; исполнительный; законодательный; судебный; выполнять; соответствовать Конституции; конституционные права граждан; объявлять неконституционным (о законе); постановление; законодательный акт.
принцип разделения полномочий
принцип судебного контроля
конституционные права граждан
6. Переведите письменно 1, 2, 3 абзацы.