Английский язык - основной инструмент общения в мире.
Контрольные по английскому
Цель контрольной работы - проверить знания студентов вузов. Если контрольная выполнена успешно, это значит, что студент имеет хорошие знания. Чем лучше знания у студента, тем сложнее контрольные он может решать.
I. Раскройте скобки, поставьте глагол в требуемой форме, переведите предложении на русский язык.
1. The Sun (rise) in the East, now it (set) and night (fell).
2. He (learn) English for three years, but he can't read a newspaper yet.
3. They (live) in this street for ten years.
4. I (meet) him when he (cross) the street.
5. They (visit) Westminster Abbey a few days ago.
6. How much did it cost? It (cost) a lot of money.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое, определите его видовременную форму и залог, переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The Tower of London was used as a prison.
2. In a few years time this play will be forgotten by people.
3. The answers must be written by you in a copy-book.
4. English is spoken all over the world.
5. She can be relied on.
6. He is said to be a skilled surgeon.
III Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, вставив предварительно одни из четырёх предлагаемых модальных глаголов.
1. You will...speak Spanish in another few months
a) can b) be able c) have to d) ought
2. Nobody answers the phone. They...be out.
a) should b) can c) would d) must
3. As you,..remember, I was always interested in scientific experiments.
a) may b) must c) have to d) ought to
4. I speak to Jane, please?
a) could b) must c) should d) ought to
5. I...get up early on Mondays.
a) am able to b) am to c) have d) may
6. My dentist says I... eat so many sweets.
a) needn't b) ought not c) mustn't d) shouldn't
IV. Прочтите и письменно переведите следующие тексты.
a) CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF ELECTRIC POWER CIRCUITS
In modern electric equipment, especially for power transmission, overload coils operating on the electromagnetic effects of an electric current are usually employed.
In the case of the supply to a DC motor, the main current is passed through a heavy-wire coil wound on an iron core. The armature of the trip coil which can be adjusted by means of the cam, is attracted by the solenoid when the load current exceeds a predetermined value.
This causes the no-volt release coil to be short circuited and the spring-loaded starter handle is pulled into the "off" position. The no-volt release coil is connected in the field circuit of the motor, and, being wound on an iron core, sets up a strong magnetic field to hold the starter in the "on" position. When the power supply fails, the no-volt coils becomes de-energized and the starter handle is pulled to the "off" position.
In addition to overload protection of individual machines, overload coils are inserted in the supply mains, the overload tripping mechanism consisting of a solenoid in series or parallel with the main current and designed to draw up a plunger to strike the tripping mechanism when the current reaches a predetermined value. Such devices can be accurately calibrated and the setting varied to suit requirements.
It is usual to allow transient overloads of limited magnitude to occur without tripping, for example, when machines are started up. In such cases time-lag devices are used. The time delay in operating the trip is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the current. The dash-pot device provides the necessary delay in operation.
Light oil is placed in the dash-pot to an indicated level, and the amount of retardation of the tapered piston can be varied by screwing up or down the tapered dash-pot cylinder which is calibrated.
The oil passes to the underside of the piston and the magnetic suction on the plunger is retarded for a given period as the piston slowly rises at first and then quickly to allow the plunger to strike the tripping mechanism.
By the use of such devices the protection of circuits can be made discriminating. The delay on main feeder switches, whose overload setting is usually liberal, should be a minimum, i.e. the tripping should be nearly instantaneous. For individual machines more tolerance is allowed, i.e. a longer retarding effect is provided.
There is no system of power transmission to compare with electricity as regards the ease of control, which can be made entirely automatic. The manual remote control of coal-face machinery is well established and this is becoming more automatic with the development of sensitive protective devices.
Developments are also taking place in power stowing, which necessitates electric drive for mechanical stowing machines and for the surface and underground compressors operating pneumatic stowers.
b) THE RIG
Oil is contained in rocks under the ground and in rocks under the sea. To find it, oilmen have to drill boreholes. The equipment for drilling these holes is drilling rig. Most rigs work on the rotary system. A bit rotates at the end of a pipe. As the bit rotates, it cuts and crushes the rock at the bottom of the hole. The cuttings are carried to the surface by a special fluid. This fluid is called "mud". Mud is a mixture of clay, water and chemicals.
Imagine a rotary rig. Notice the string. This is made up of "joints" or "singles". Each joint or single is a hollow section of pipe, 30 ft long. The string is made up of a number of these singles all joined together. The bit is connected to the bottom of the string. At the top of the string there is a special pipe called the "kelly". The Kelly isn't round, but hexagonal. It fits into a hexagonal hole in the rotary table. The rotary table turns the Kelly, the Kelly turns the string and the string turns the rotary bit
Mud is not only used for carrying the cuttings up to the surface. It is also used for keeping the bit cool. The mud is pumped down through the string. It comes back up again through the annulus. The mud engineer or "mud man" is in charge of the mud. For example, he tells the floorman how to mix the mud at the mud tanks.
It is often necessary to pull the string out of the hole. There are different reasons for this. Perhaps, for example, the drill bit is dull. If the bit is dull, it must be changed. To do this, the driller and the floorman must trip the pipe. They must pull the string out, change the bit, and then
run the string back into the hole. Tripping the pipe is also called "making round trip". Round trips are expensive. Oilmen make them only if they must.
Find the English equivalent for the words in the text:
крошит и режет породу
произвести замену бура (долота)
V. Перевели к письменно следующий текст:
THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK, or Britain) is a country to the north-west of mainland Europe. It comprises the island of Great Britain, the north-east part of the island of Ireland and many small islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK with a land border, sharing it with the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea. The largest island, Great Britain, is linked to France by the Channel Tunnel.
The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy comprising four constituent' countries England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales – with Elizabeth II as head of state, who is also head of state of the Commonwealth realms. The Crown Dependencies of the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man formally possessions of the Crown, are not part of the UK but form a federacy with it. The UK has fourteen oversea territories, all remnants of the British Empire, which at its height encompassed almost a quarter of the world land surface. It is a developed country, with the fifth-largest economy the world by nominal GDP.
Britain was the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th century but the economic cost of two world wars and the decline of its empire in the latter half of the 20th century diminished its leading role in global affairs. The UK nevertheless retains major economic, cultural, military and political influence today and is a nuclear power, with the second defense spending in the world. It holds a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council, and is a member of the G8, NATO the European Union and the Commonwealth of Nations.
VI. Ответить на вопросы по тексту.
1. Where is the UK situated?
2. What does the UK consist of?
3. What is Great Britain’s only bordering country?
4. What territories does the UK have federacy with?
5. How big was the British Empire?
6. What were the reasons that brought the British Empire to its end?
7. What is Britain’s political system?