Предполагается, что контрольные работы - это практические задания, которые необходимы для определения уровня подготовки студента. Если студент выполнил контрольную правильно, значит у него хорошие знания по английскому языку.
Контрольная работа № 4 по английскому языку
Задание № I.
Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.
1. This motor car is considered to be safe.
2. Samples of semiconductors with improved properties .are reported to be obtained on a new installation.
3. Scientific discoveries to be practically applied in industry and agriculture are paid special attention to.
Задание № 2.
Найдите и подчеркните в предложении герундий, предложения перепишите
и переведите на русский язык.
1. Connecting an ammeter to a circuit one can measure electrical current.
2. Earthing of electrical devices is brought about by connecting the metal body directly to the earth with a thick conductor.
3. Being a light metal aluminium is widely used in electric engineering industry,
Задание № 3.
Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения. Обратите
внимание на перевод условных предложений.
1. If liquids expand upon freezing, an increase of pressure lowers the freezing point.
2. If the metal had been heated slowly, the first changes in its appearance would have occurred at a temperature of 1000 K.
3. It would be impossible to determine the properties of these materials without intensive studies in our research laboratory.
Задание № 4.
Прочтите и устно переведите с 1 no 5 абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1,2,3 и 4 абзацы.
1. All the industries today are in need of new methods of joining metals together. And not only metals with metals but also Joining metals with glass, plastics and many other materials. The work done by the Paton Institute of Electric Welding (институт электросварки им. Нитона в Киеве) is considered to be the solution of these problems. For example, how to weld a 1.000 km-long pipeline? The Institute has developed a machine for welding pipelines. The welding section in each pipe exceeds 100,000 sq.mm. It would take 6-8 hours to perform this work by hand. The machine does it in two minutes.
2. The machine was tested in production conditions, the results being excellent.
3. It would seem strange to compare the steel constructions that produce oil in the Caspian Sea with a space station orbiting the Earth. What do they have in common? But they do (а они все-таки имеют) - it is the need for making repairs, and repairs mean cutting metal and doing welding work.
4. The rapid development of the oil and other mineral resources of the ocean made the problem of underwater welding especially up-to-date. The equipment developed by Kiev's scientists is very effective. New semi-automatic machines for Underwater welding increased divers productivity by 25-30 times.
5. And what about welding in outer space? The scientists understood that welding had to be done in conditions of weightlessness, in nearly complete vacuum and within a broad range of temperatures - from 150°C below to 130°C above zero. The equipment, of course, must be reliable and safe. And the Institute developed such equipment.
Задание № 5
Прочтите 5 абзац текста и ответьте письменно на вопрос:
What arе the conditions of welding in space?
Контрольная работа №4
1. During a year almost 200 million tons of metal objects are considered to be destroyed by corrosion. Considering that about 600 million tons of metal a year are produced in the world, it is easy to understand the losses of objects without which our life could not be imagined.
2. The situation is very serious, because not only metal is destroyed but also a great amount of articles, instruments» and tools-whose cost exceeds many times the cost of the metal used for their manufacture.
3. Combating against (борьба против) the .corrosion of metals has now become a key problem in all industrialized countries. The scientific and technical achievements in the field of raising the corrosion resistance of construction materials are the basis of technical progress in different branches of industry, an indicator of the country's economic potential.
4. A large amount of "anti-corrosion" work is being carried out in Russia. The results are evident: Russian-made inhibitors (ингибиторы, изготовленные в России), varnishes, paint covers are being well known throughout the world. Gas pipelines, metal structures, the bodies of atomic reactors and ships, etc. have been reliably protected against corrosion.
5. Russia also exports special equipment and some kinds of technology designed to weaken corrosion. Anti-corrosion varnishes, paints, insulating materials and equipment are purchased abroad.
Контрольная работа № 4
1. People have designed and produced up-to-date machines and technologies to make their life easier and more comfortable. But all these activities result in air and water pollution.
2. One of the most important problems is the oceans. A lot of ships crossing the oceans and seas, especially those that carry oil. put their wastes into water, and the water becomes ditty. As a result many birds and fish die because of polluted water, others are getting contaminated and people may get sick from eating them.
3. The second problem is air pollution. Cars and plants pollute the atmosphere with their wastes. They destroy the ozone layer whish protects us from the dangerous light of the Sun. They also destroy forests which are dying from acid rains.
The word smog comes from smoke and fog. Smog is a sort of fog with other substances mixed in it, which can be harmful, even deadly. Such diseases as eczema and asthma are linked to air pollution.
4. Materials like paper and glass can be reused, but unfortunately, many materials, especially plastics cannot be reused and cannot be absorbed by the earth again. Some plastics cannot even be destroyed. As a result of this people face the problem of preservation of our environment.
5. Now people begin to realize the danger of their activities. People are concerned about the air and the water used by everyone, they are also concerned about the future of the planet because they understand that these activities affect the balance of nature.
Контрольная работа №4
Electronics - Science of the Future
1. In our country much attention is given to electronics, which is playing a major part in economic development. Russian scientists and engineers have many achievements to their credit (на своем счету) in this field. One outstanding example is space.
2. Electronics, however, has not only helped us to reach cosmic expanses but has given us an insight into the world of the most minute organisms-viruses. For instance, a modern electronic microscope shows the processes taking place in ultra-microscopic formations of a living cell. Now it is possible to distinguish details being a millionth of a millimeter away from each other.
3. Electronics is in many ways helping us to solve the problem of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, and to study atomic nuclei and elementary particles. We know electronics to have round broad application in industry as a means (средство) of automation, control and inspection, and as a direct means of fulfilling such operations as melting, cutting of superhard materials, welding, etc.
4. Тhе electron beam acting like в micro-miniature instrument can cut bore, mill or plane any material, including tungsten and diamond, with an accuracy to within microns. Quantum generators can focus light in extremely narrow beams, their angular width being in the order of a thousandth of a degree. These instruments are called lasers and they can be used for cutting, drilling, welding and other treatment of materials.
5. The lasers are also used in studying the properties of various substances, in radio engineering, medicine, biology, etc. Scientists believe that such a beam of light will make it possible to establish contact with the stellar system closest to our planet.
Контрольная работа № 4
1. The Internet is a global computer network that embraces millions of users all over the world. It dates back to 1969 when it began as a military experiment. Information that people send over the Internet takes the shortest path from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet are connected with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet switching network (сеть коммутации пакетов). Owing to (благодаря) this technology, if some computers on the network fail, the information just routes around them.
2. One of the most popular Internet services is e-mail (electronic mail -электронная почта). Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web and Intranet.
3. However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message travels through many different networks and computers. Special computers that are called routers (маршрутизаторы) direct the data towards its destination. That is why it becomes possible to get into any of computers along the route and even change the data that we send over the Internet. This happens because the Internet transmits nearly all the information, which we send without any form of encoding.