Английский язык изучают врачи, экономисты, юристы и просто обыватели.
Контрольные по английскому
Контрольные работы выполняют студенты. Кроме студентов контрольные работы по английскому языку могут выполнять также все, кто изучает английский. Контрольные работы по английскому языку помогают узнать свои слабые места в знаниях. Контрольные могут быть полезными всем, ктои учит английский язык.
1. Напишите первую форму следующих глаголов:
- founded, developed, studied, carried, constructed, surrounded, existed, joined, entered, worked, trained, headed;
- taught, meant, cut, grew, laid, broke, saw, became, got, gave, wrote, sold
2 . Напишите вторую и третью формы следующих глаголов (Past Indefinite, Participle II):
- live, invite, ask, answer, last, fail, pass, allow, plan, connect, repeat, look;
- say, show, tell, have, begin, take, do, spend, go, drive, win, lie
3. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
- Не has always helped me during our study.
- I have finished Exercise 1.
- My friend has received a letter from India.
- She has made a mistake in her test.
- The child has slept in the open air.
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, отразив смысловое различие, внесённое глагольными формами. Определите время глагола в обоих предложениях:
- I shall be translating a very difficult scientific article during the second week of April.
- By April I shall have translated a very difficult scientific article.
5. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в Past Indefinite или Present Perfect:
- I (have) a busy day today.
- She (have) a busy day last Sunday.
- I (be) to London twice.
- When (be) you there?
- They (come) back from the North a month ago.
6. Напишите следующие предложения в Past Indefinite u Future Indefinite:
- You must introduce the new methods.
- Children can help their parents about the house.
- The girl may stay at home.
8. Поставьте предложения в прошедшем и будущем времени; укажите время и залог глагола:
- The new metro stations are being built in our city.
- Many subjects are studied by the students at our Institute.
- The letters are received early in the morning.
- News is reported over the radio every day.
- The exercises are checked up in class.
- The children are taken great care of.
- The delegations are shown around our city.
- Urgent messages are sent by wire.
- Oranges are grown in the South.
- Hats are sold at the millinery.
9. Поставьте глаголы, заключённые в скобки, в соответствующую форму страдательного залога:
- Our guests (show) around the city now.
- Art festivals (be held) every other year.
- This scientific problem (speak) much about lately.
- The lecture (deliver) in French next time.
- The method (put) in practice a few months ago.
- A new method (put) in practice now.
- A lot of beautiful buildings (built) since that time.
- The article (write) soon.
- Another excursion (organize) for our group last Saturday.
10. Поставьте все типы вопросов к следующим предложениям:
- A taxi has been sent for.
- Many poems were learnt by heart.
- The play will be much spoken about.
- The child's temperature is taken each hour.
- The story is being read aloud.
11. Ответьте на следующие вопросы письменно:
- When was America discovered?
- By whom was it discovered?
- The new continent was named after Amerigo Vespussi, wasn't it?
- Why was the continent named after Amerigo Vespussi?
Переведите тексты письменно.
Text 2. Crime
A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or omission) directed against the social and state system, the system of economy, property and other rights of citizens or any other act infringing law and order which is defined in criminal legislation as dangerous to society.
Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility where the nature of the act is not socially dangerous. In consequence, criminal law does not regard as a crime an act or omission which, even if formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality.
Each crime consists of a number of individual elements. Those elements characterize the purpose of a criminal act, the form and method of an action, the character of a criminal act and so forth. The total sum of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is grounds for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not be considered guilty of having committed a crime unless several elements of corpus delicti of that crime have been established in his acts. In the absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may not be instituted, and if instituted, may not be continued, and must be stopped at any stage.
In pronouncing its sentence the court must above all answer these questions: a) did the act ascribed to the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was the act performed by the accused? The object of a crime is, under criminal law, social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are ultimately aimed against the social relations taking shape and developing in society. However, each crime has an immediate object. Thus, murder has its immediate object - human life, theft - state, collective or personal property; rowdyism (hooliganism) - public law and order, etc.
A crime may be committed by an act, i.e. the active behaviour of a person, or persons, or by an omission, i.e. the non-performance of acts which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).
The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is responsible for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are compos mentis can be the subject of a crime. Persons who have the age of 16 before the commission of a crime are criminally responsible; for some crimes (murder, deliberate infliction of bodily injury impairing health, brigandage, stealing, robbery, hooliganism with evil intent, etc.) the age is 14 years.
Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably higher.
A person who, at the time of the commission of a socially dangerous act, is non-compos mentis, i.e. is unable to account for his actions or to govern them in consequence of chronic mental disease, temporary mental derangement, weak-mindedness or some other morbid state, is not criminally responsible. Compulsory medical treatment as established by the criminal legislation of the state (placing in a general or special mental hospital) may be applied to such a person by a court order.
A person who, at the time of the commission of a crime, is compos mentis but, before a sentence is passed by the court, is affected by mental derangement, is not liable to punishment. By an order of the court compulsory medical treatment may be applied to such a person and on recovery from his illness he may be liable to punishment. A person committing a crime while in a state of drunkenness is not relieved of criminal responsibility.
Text 4 Economics
It is not only customary but also logical to begin the study of any subject with its definition. But, when we come to economics, we are seriously handicapped in this regard, as there is neither a single comprehensive definition of the subject nor a general agreement among economists on the appropriateness of a particular definition. Economics being a developing and dynamic subject, its true range is not yet fixed. It cannot be fixed, either. This is because economics develops changes with time; and time is never steady or stern.
Things change with time, so does economics: its scope-boundaries of the subject-matter, range, method and mode of analysis, approach to thinking on economic ideas and institutions, their role and significance, everything changes when time moves. Perhaps, for these reasons, economists like Hutchinson and Myrdal are of the opinion that economists need to be rigid regarding the precise definition of economics, since a mere definition is of little use in explaining and solving the economic problems faced by man in his life.
This, however, does not mean that one can remain silent on the question of defining economics. An attempt to provide a systematic, comprehensive and analytical definition of the subject is essential to know its nature, scope, significance and limitations. "Definition", as Erich Roll says, "is an essential part of any systematic discipline and the limits of field which it sets out to cultivate should be clearly marked. It is by definition that we assign to each discipline its room in the building of knowledge".