Контрольные по английскому
Если вы хотите выучить английский язык, то вам необходимо время от времени проверять свои знания. Контрольные по английскому языку служат для проверки знаний, а также для повторения пройденных тем.
I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов should и would.
1. GIS systems should be used for collecting various information on parcels.
2. It would be impossible to tax various types of land plots without using cadastres.
3. If the information about the land were not gathered it would he difficult to follow the land ownership.
II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, принимая во внимание, что инфинитивные и причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям
1. Property transactions performed are known to be recorded by some official bodies.
2. Classification of cadastres depends on a number of factors, their choice dominated by culture and physical geography of the country.
3. Unless properly surveyed and delineated the parcel cannot be included in the cadastre.
4. At first, governments wanted information on the land to be used for calculating taxes on it.
5. The type and characteristics of data recorded in both the graphical and attribute files having been analyzed, it is important to determine the resolution and scale of cadastre maps.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание па различные значения выделенных слов.
1. As to the rights recorded they all are certified by titles (правовой титул) to be issued to the parcel owner.
2. Since the methods for collecting information on parcels are different, one can pick up the most appropriate one in the current conditions.
3. Both public and private company arе to inform the registering body about changes taking place in the parcel ownership.
IV. Прочтите и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2. 3 и 4-й абзацы.
1. Different Cadastres. Most early societies developed rudimentary types of Cadastres to support taxation and other land administration' activities. As societies evolved and property transactions became important. Cadastral records began to take on a greater legal role. Today, Cadastres often serve many functions and multiple users.
2. Through the centuries, many types of Cadastral systems evolved and their differences often depend upon local cultural heritage, physical geography, land use, technology, etc. Cadastres may be classified in many ways. e.g. by:
primary function (e.g. supporting taxation, conveyancing, land distribution, or multipurpose land management activities);
the types of rights recorded (e.g. private ownership, use rights, mineral leases): the degree of state responsibility in ensuring the accuracy and reliability of the data (e.g. complete state mandate, shared public and private responsibility);
location and jurisdiction (e.g. urban and rural Cadastres; centralized and decentralized Cadastres);
the many ways in which information about the parcels16 is collected (e.g. ground surveys tied to geodetic control, uncoordinated ground surveys and measurements, aerial photography, digitizing existing historical records, etc.)
3. All of these factors help to determine the required resolution and scale of graphical data (such as cadastral maps), the type and characteristics of data recorded in both the graphical and attribute files, and the organizational and professional responsibility for managing the data.
4. Other factors that will influence the format and management of the Cadastre include: history, culture, and traditional land tenure arrangements;
physical and economic geography; population distribution; level of technology;
traditional public administration arrangements: land and property law arrangements; land policy priorities for the jurisdiction.
5. In continental Europe, as in most countries worldwide, the responsibility for managing cadastral information has historically been divided among several government organizations and professions. Land registration has generally been the mandate for the courts and the legal profession. Mapping, parcel boundary delimitation, and maintenance of parcel data for fiscal, land use control, and land redistribution purposes have been the responsibility of the surveying profession. In regions such as North America, other professions have historically been responsible for land use planning and for land valuation and taxation.
V. Прочтите 5-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос: What organizations are responsible for cadastres in European countries?