Английский язык дает дополнительные возможности тем, кто часто бывает за границей.
Контрольные по английскому языку необходимо решать тем, кто изучает английский.
Documents used in International Trade
I. The three most used documents in international trade are a bill of lading, a commercial invoice, and an insurance certificate. The bill of lading is a document issued by a carrier, or its agent, to the shipper as a contract of carriage of goods. Moreover, it is also a receipt for cargo accepted for transportation. It must be presented for taking delivery at the destination. The bill of lading has three functions. The functions include establishing ownership over goods, acting as a contract to carry the goods, and last, acting as a shipper’s receipt. A bill of lading is required in all claims for compensation for any damage, delay, or loss; and for the resolution of disputes regarding the ownership of the cargo.
II. A commercial invoice is a document which is required by customs to determine the true value of the imported goods. It can also be used for the assessment of duties and taxes. The purpose of the commercial invoice is identifying payment terms in a specific currency, giving the names of the importer and the exporter, listing full details of goods shipped with INCOTERMS, and listing charges for transport and insurance. INCOTERMS stands for international commercial terms. It is said that “thirteen terms of sale are accepted worldwide in assignment of costs and responsibilities between the buyer and the seller. Proposed, updated, and copyrighted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), they serve as global standards for uniform interpretation of common contract clauses in international trade.”
III. There are different types of insurance; an example will be a marine insurance and an insurance certificate. The marine insurance covers you against any damage or loss that happens in the sea, land, or even in the air. Even though it’s in the air, it has the same name. The insurance certificate is issued per trip to show the proof of insurance. But it is not a substitute for the actual policy, and is normally a non-negotiable document. The insurance certificate is unacceptable under the terms of a letter of credit and in making claim, nor is it assignable to a third party.
IV. The other important documents used in the sphere of international trade include a certificate of origin, a packing list, and a quality or inspection certificate.
V. The certificate of origin is a specified document certifying the country of origin of the merchandise required by certain foreign countries for tariff purposes. This certificate is issued by the Chamber of Commerce, the Trade Association or any other authorized body of the exporting country and it sometimes requires the signature of the consul of the country to which it is destined.
VII. The exporter must prepare a packing list showing the description of items, the number of containers/ boxes with the specification of net weight & gross weight to enable the importer of the goods to check the shipment.
VIII. The quality or inspection certificate is a certificate declaring that the goods have been examined and found to be in accordance with the contract of sale. It is signed by a manufacturer or a supplier or any recognized independent
inspection body as required by the importer.
IX. A bill of exchange refers to export financial documentation. It is a special type of a written document under which an exporter asks an importer a certain amount of money in the future and an importer also agrees to pay the importer that amount of money on or before the future date. This document has a special importance in wholesale trade where a large amount of money is involved.
X. The following persons are involved in a bill of exchange: the drawer is the person who writes or prepares the bill; the drawer is the person who pays the bill; the payee is the person to whom the payment is to be made; the holder of the bill is the person who is in possession of the bill.
Прочитайте и устно переведите весь текст.
Соотнесите информацию, представленную в некоторых абзацах текста, с номерами абзацев.
A Packing List
B Certificate of Origin
C Commercial Invoice
D Bill of Exchange
E Marine Insurance
F Persons involved in a Bill of Exchange
Ответьте письменно на вопросы.
1. What are the three most used documents in international trade?
2. Who is the bill of lading issued by?
3. How many functions does the bill of lading have?
4. What is a commercial invoice used for?
5. What does INCOTERMS stand for?
6. What does the marine insurance cover you against?
7. Is the insurance certificate assignable to a third party?
8. What does the certificate of origin certify?
9. What does a packing list show?
10. Who is the quality certificate issued by?
11. Does a bill of exchange refer to financial or transportation documentation?
12. The drawer is the person who pays the bill, isn’t he?
Соединив слова из двух колонок, образуйте выражения, которые встречаются в тексте. Переведите их на русский язык.
1. chamber of a. list
2. bill of b. certificate
3. marine c. weight
4. letter of d. lading
5. inspection e. credit
6. wholesale f. commerce
7. trade g. insurance
8. shipper’s h. trade
9. packing i. receipt
10. gross j. association
Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующим глагольным словосочетаниям на русском языке.
1. перевозить товары
2. определить истинную ценность
3. служить в качестве международных стандартов
4. страховать от ущерба
5. подготовить упаковочный лист
6. проверить груз
7. оплатить счёт
Составьте свои собственные предложения со словосочетаниями из упражнения 5.
Определите видовременную форму и залог глаголов-сказуемых в следующих фрагментах предложений.
1. The functions include establishing ownership over goods …
2. A bill of lading is required in all claims for compensation for any damage, delay, or loss;
3. … an example will be a marine insurance and an insurance certificate.
4. … the goods have been examined.
5. A bill of exchange refers to export financial documentation.
6. The following persons are involved in a bill of exchange;
Выпишите из текста предложения с модальными глаголами. Переведите их на русский язык.
Выпишите из 2, 3, 9, 10 абзацев определительные придаточные предложения. Подчеркните относительные местоимения, используемые для соединения главного предложения с придаточным. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Подчеркните неличные формы глагола в следующих предложениях (инфинитив, герундий, причастие I, причастие II) и определите их функцию в предложении.
1. Moreover, it is also a receipt for cargo accepted for transportation.
2. The functions include establishing ownership over goods, acting as a contract to carry the goods, and last, acting as a shipper’s receipt.
3. This certificate is issued by the Chamber of Commerce, the Trade Association or any other authorized body of the exporting country and it sometimes requires the signature of the consul of the country to which it is destined.
4. The exporter must prepare a packing list showing the description of items, the number of containers/ boxes with the specification of net weight & gross weight to enable the importer of the goods to check the shipment.
Письменно переведите I и II абзацы текста.
Составьте 4 вопроса по содержанию текста:
1. General question (общий вопрос)
2. Special question (специальный вопрос)
3. Alternative question (альтернативный вопрос)
4. Disjunctive question (разделительный вопрос)