В Москве, Санкт-Петербурге и других городах студенты решают различные контрольные по английскому языку.
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS (ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ СИСТЕМЫ)
There are a number of ways in which a government can organize its economy and the type of system chosen is critical in shaping environment in which businesses operate.
An economic system is quite simply the way in which a country uses its available resources (land, workers, natural resources, machinery etc.) to satisfy the demands of its inhabitants for goods and services. The more goods and services that can be produced from these limited resources, the higher the standard of living enjoyed by the country's citizens. There are three main economic systems:
Planned economics (Плановая экономика)
Planned economies are sometimes called" "command economies" because the state commands the use of resources (such as labour and factories) that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions, the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult, very complicated to do, and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all.
Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives which, if met, allow the nation's overall aim to be reached.
A planned economy is simple to understand but not simple to operate. It does, however, have a number of advantages:
* Everyone in society receives enough goods and services to enjoy a basic standard of living.
* Nations do not waste resources duplicating production.
* The state can use its control of the economy to divert resources to wherever it wants. As a result, it can ensure that everyone receives a good education, proper health care or that transport is available.
Several disadvantages also exist. It is these disadvantages that have led to many nations abandoning planned economies over recent years:
* There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies.
* Any profits that are made are paid to the government.
* Citizens cannot start their own businesses and so new ideas rarely come forward.
* As a result, industries in planned economies can be very inefficient.
A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce. Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people's tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.
//. Replace the parts in italics by synonyms
obsolete products -
it can ensure that... -
it can be very inefficient -
There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies. -
It led to many nations abandoning planned economies over recent years. -
///. Fill in the gaps with the words and expressions from the text
1. The type of system chosen is _in _, in which businesses operate.
2. An economic system is the way in which a country uses its _ to satisfy the demands of for goods and services.
3. The more goods and services that can be produced, the higher _ by the country's citizens.
4. The state _ factories, land and _.
5. Planned economies are economies with _ of _, when the government _ all _, decides _ and _.
6. The actual system employed _ from state to slate, but command or planned economies have _.
7. It is _ that there should be enough goods and services for all.
8. Industries are asked _ these plans and each industry and factory is _.
9. The factory and farm targets are_ which, if met, allow the nation's _ to be reached.
10. Nations do not waste resources _.
11. The state can use its control of the economy _ to wherever it wants.
12. It is _ that have led to many nations _ planned economies over recent years.
13. There is no _ for individuals to work hard in planned economies.
14. Industries in planned economies can be very_.
15. Command economies tend to _ when _ to changes in people's tastes and fashions.
16. Planners are likely _ some items as they cannot _changes in demand.
17. Some _ and unattractive products may be _.
18. This leads to _ for some products.
IV. Find in the text English equivalents for the following
имеющиеся в распоряжении ресурсы
управлять использованием ресурсов
отказываться от плановой экономики
иметь высокий жизненный уровень
иметь общие черты
подчиняться 5-летнему плану
ставить производственные задачи
стимул к эффективной работе
перебои и очереди
реагировать на изменения спроса
предсказывать изменения спроса
основная проблема, стоящая перед...