Контрольная по английскому EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

 

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Данная контрольная работа по английскому языку состоит из трех текстов. Нужно выполнить перевод данных английских текстов на русский язык. В контрольной по английскому языку включены задания на поиск так называемых интернационализмов. В контрольной также есть задание на поиск терминов, относящихся к строительству и технике.

 

EDUCATION IN RUSSIA. Английский язык.

Знания английского языка дают прекрасные возможности сделать карьеру.

Контрольные

Контрольные необходимы для проверки знаний: лексики и грамматики английского языка.


Задание: 1) Пожалуйста, переведите текст на русский язык.
2) Выпишите интернациональные слова (т.е. слова, которые имеют близкое звучание в русском языке).

EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

1. Ancient Russia was one of the early feudal states and held a leading place in the world history. The Slavonic written language came to Rus from Bulgaria in the 9-th century. Between the 10-th and 13-th centuries Russians developed a high civilization, which formed the foundation of the Russian culture in the following centuries. The written works of the time show that the level of knowledge on most natural phenomena was as high as that of Ancient Greece.
Monasteries were cultural and educational centers. They had large libraries and well-equipped book-making shops, in which not only church manuscripts were copied and translated but original books were written. Today we can confidently say that Ancient Rus was a state of high culture and knowledge.
2. In pre-revolutionary Russia there was a network of primary schools for common people. Nevertheless illiteracy among common people was very high. Well-off people taught their children in grammar schools (зд. гимназии), commercial schools teaching no classics (реальные училища).
3. There were also schools for nobles only. Entrance to those schools was limited. For example, at lycee where A.S. Pushkin studied only boys at the age of 10 or 12 from noble families of high rank were admitted and studied there for six years. They were taught many different subjects. The most important were Russian literature, history, geography, mathematics, physics, logic, law rhetoric and such foreign languages as French, English, German and Latin. Great attention was paid to different arts and physical training: riding, swimming, fencing and dancing. The aim of this school was to bring up intelligent people in the broad sense of the word. Those who graduated from such educational institutions usually entered the service of their country to realize their abilities and knowledge to the benefit of their state.
4. The history of higher education in Russia goes back to 1755 when the first University was founded in Moscow on the initiative of M.V. Lomonosov and in accordance with his plan. Later the Universities were opened in many other big cities of the country.
5. After the revolution in 1917, education was guaranteed to the Soviet citizens by the Constitution and was free of charge, including higher education. Teaching at schools was carried out almost in all national languages. The system of education was the same throughout the country.
School attendance was compulsory for those between 7 and 15. Those who completed their secondary education and passed entrance examinations to higher education establishments received monthly grants if they did not fail in the examinations that they took at the end of each term. Higher school education lasted five years.
6. In 1991 the former fifteen republics of the Soviet Union became independent states. The Russian Federation, the biggest and the most powerful of them began to develop as a democratic state. Changes in political, economic and social conditions required changes in the system of education. Its aim became to prepare the growing generation for independent life and work in new conditions.
New curriculums were introduced in schools such as “The World Around Us” for younger students, “Fundamentals of Information Science and Computer Engineering”,”Ethics and Psychology of Family Life” for senior students. Along with the state schools where education is free of charge there appeared many private schools, colleges, gymnasiums.
At some schools the leavers are sent abroad to continue their education at Sorbonne in Paris, at the Universities of Great Britain, Germany, USA and other countries. After graduating from those Universities they return to their country to work in different fields of the national economy.

 

Задание: 1) Пожалуйста, переведите текст на русский язык.
2) Выпишите все глаголы с переводом их на русский язык.

WASHINGTON, D.C


Washington D.C. does not belong to a state. It’s a city and a district.- the District Columbia. The state of Washington is located in the northwest of the USA. Washington is located on the East Coast. It was chosen by George Washington as the permanent site for the nation’s capital on December 1, 1800.
George Washington was the first person to be elected the President of the U.S. He was born in Virginia, just south of Washington, D.C. He grew up on a large farm. He went to school for about eight years. He especially liked to study mathematics. He also liked to study history and geography, because he wanted to know about other parts of the world. George Washington led the American army in many battles during the War for American Independence.
The Library of Congress is located there. It is the largest national library in the world. It takes 340 miles of shelves to hold all of the books!
The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson. He was the third President of the United States. The Jefferson Memorial was built in honour of Thomas Jefferson. Inside it there is a 19-foot statue of Thomas Jefferson standing on a 6-foot pedestal.
There is also the Lincoln Memorial, built in honour of Abraham Lincoln. Abraham Lincoln taught himself how to read and write. He became the sixteenth President of the United States in 1861. Lincoln wrote the Emancipation Proclamation (Декларация Независимости), which freed the blacks in the South from slavery. Inside the memorial there is a huge statue of the former president.
We can go to the National Air and Space Museum, where you can see the history of flight, from the first plane flown by the Wright brothers to the Apollo space ship.
The Supreme Court occupies a majestic building. This is where the laws are interpreted by the highest judges in the United States.

 

Задание: 1) Пожалуйста, переведите текст на русский язык.
2) Выпишите термины, относящиеся к строительству, технике и оборудованию метро с переводом их на русский язык.

LONDON’S UNDERGROUND

Bands were playing and the gentlemen in hats were preparing to make speeches about their great achievement. They made the first underground railway travel in the world – a distance of almost four miles.
It was the year 1863 and on that first historic day 30 000 Londoners used this new and strange way of travel. Now more than a hundred years later the London Underground carries more than a million passengers every day.
In the early days the trains were driven by steam locomotives which burnt coal.
It is said that the train staff and porters asked permission to grow beards and moustaches – as an early form of smog mask.
Now the atmosphere “underground” is considered even better than that outside as germs cannot grow in the dry air – and the trains, of course, are electric.
The deep tunneling came later, in 1890. Tunneling a tube through miles of clay, and sometimes sand and gravel is no easy task, and it was James Henry Greathead who developed the method which was to make most of London’s tube tunnels possible.
There are numerous escalators which help to keep the traffic moving. The first was installed in 1911. On long escalators the speed is changeable. The “up” escalator runs at full speed when carrying passengers, but when empty, it runs at half speed. Many of the new escalators have automatic control making a more frequent service throughout the day possible.
Safety was always one of the main concerns of London transport. In spite of the fact that trains often follow each other within seconds, it is said that the London Underground is the safest form of transport in the world. Automatic signaling is operated by the train themselves. A program machine controls routes : if changes are necessary, they are made automatically and with lightning speed. No accidents can happen through human weakness.
New automatic driving systems are now being used. The air in the Underground is changed every quarter of an hour, and the temperature all year round is maintained at 69-79 degrees Fahrenheit. The usage of modern materials make maintenance (зд. эксплуатация) easier. This modernization is coordinated with the renewal of lifts and escalators and the introduction of new ticketing machines. The fair in the Underground depends on the distance, but the lowest is 50 pence.
The Underground is becoming much cleaner and brighter and therefore more pleasant to use, carrying more passengers than at any time in its long history.