Английский призван дать людям ключ к общению.
Готовые работы. Ответы.
Готовые контрольные с ответами дадут необходимый опыт и знания тем, кто изучает английский самостоятельно.
Упражнение 1. Объясните употребление времен группы Perfect, переведите.
1. This is a very good book, I have just read it with pleasure.
2. He has been absent this week. He has been ill.
3. I haven’t seen you for a long time. Where have you been all this time?
4. We haven’t heard about her since 1989.
5. By the beginning of the lecture the laboratory assistant had brought all the necessary diagrams.
6. Before we came to the next lecture we had studied the material of the first one.
7. Have you already finished your diploma work? No, I shall have finished it by the end of June.
8. They will not have passed their exams by the time you return.
9. Many students have been enroled into universities this year.
10. The translation has not been finished yet. It will have been finished by the end of the month.
11. Have you brought these journals with you? No, these journals had been brought by my sister before I returned from St.Petersburg. Don’t you know that?
А. Выберите правильную форму сказуемого.
1. Не (has graduated, graduated) from MSTU named after Bauman this year. He (graduated, will have graduated) from MSTU named after Bauman in 6 years.
2. She (saw, has seen) us in the morning yesterday. She (saw, has seen) us this morning.
3. I (have met, met) him last year. I never (had met, have met) him before.
4. Our group (will do, will have done) a lab work tomorrow.
5. This problem (is discussed, has been discussed) much in the press lately.
В. Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный залог.
1. The students have done their homework very well.
2. Bob has left his notebook at home.
3. I have told you about a lecture.
4. The laboratory assistant had prepared the experiment by 2 o’clock.
5. She had finished her test when we came.
6. The teacher will have corrected our dictation by the end of the week.
7. They have not made any mistakes.
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения.
1. Что вы сделали сегодня? — Я напечатала (to type) много писем. — Я хочу посмотреть письмо к мистеру Д. — Вот, пожалуйста, Я только что напечатала его. — А письмо к мистеру Р.? — Я еще не напечатала это письмо. Я напечатаю его к концу рабочего дня.
2. Вчера мы встретили наших друзей. Мы не видели их с окончания университета. До возвращения в Москву они работали в Орле.
3. Новый завод будет построен к началу следующего года. Он будет оснащен самым современным оборудованием.
Упражнение 4. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. After the international conference on ecology it has become possible to begin working at environmental problems on a global scale.
2. Some scientists and engineers are working at improving traditional production processes, others are developing new technologies.
3. The new instruments will enable us to determine the level of pollution in our rivers.
4. Our technological advances make it possible to deal with the most difficult problems.
5. Our lecturer’s book on strength of materials is well-known and popular.
6. One must study six years to become an engineer.
7. There is a big library in the new building of our institute. It is a very good library. One may get all the necessary books there and it is possible to keep them till the end of the academic year.
8. It is well-known that technological progress is impossible without electronics, computers, robots and new materials.
9. That ecological problems have become the most important ones at present is evident to all.
10. What is necessary for the students is to get a good qualification.
11. That S.P. Korolyev was the founder of practical cosmonautics is a well- known fact.
12. That theory is combined with practical training is a very good tradition of our educational system.
13. That it is necessary to develop an international ecological program is realized throughout the world.
Упражнение 5. Прочитайте и письменно переведите интернациональные слова. Выучите слова наизусть.
electricity, civilization, economic and social, transformer, universal, electrometallurgy, cable, specific, machine, photocopying machine, radar, Paris, generator, battery, lamp, dynamo, indicator, nation, energy, service, laser, compact.
Прочитайте текст, перечислите наиболее важные изобретения в области электротехники. Переведите.
It is impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity: economic and social progress will be turned to the past and our daily lives completely transformed.
Electrical power has become universal. Thousands of applications of electricity such as lighting, electrochemistry and electrometallurgy are longstanding and unquestionable.
With the appearance of the electrical motor, power cables replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys1 in the 19-th century workshops. And in the home a whole range of various time and labour saving appliances2 have become a part of our ev¬eryday lives.
Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity: electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electromagnetism in the case of radar and television. These applications have made electricity most widely used.
The first industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris. The generator — a new compact source of electricity — was also developed there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been used before.
Electric lighting came into wide use at the end of the last century with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas Edison. Then the transformer was invented, the first electric lines and networks were set up, dynamos and induction motors3 were designed.
Since the beginning of the 20th century the successful development of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years.
Today consumption of electricity per capita4 is an indicator of the state of development and economic health of a nation. Electricity has replaced other sources of energy as it has been realized that it offers improved service and reduced cost.
One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is clean, easily-regulated and generates no by-products5. Applications of electricity now cover all fields of human activity from house washing machines to the latest laser devices. Electricity is the efficient source of some of the most recent technological advances such as the laser and electron beams. Truly6 electricity provides mankind with the energy of the future.
Упражнение 3.1 Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту.
1. What is this text about?
2. What industrial applications of electricity do you know?
3. What home applications of electricity do you know?
4. Where was the generator developed?
5. Who invented the electric lamp?
6. Do you know who invented the dynamo?
7. Can you imagine our life without electricity? Why?
Упражнение 3.2 Определите функции глагола to have, письменно переведите предложения.
1. Electricity has many useful properties: it is clean and generates no by-products.
2. It has many important applications in industry as well as in our houses.
3. The latest laser devices have found application in medicine.
4. Electricity has provided mankind with the most efficient source of energy.
5. No other source of energy has been so widely used as electricity.
6. We have many various electric devices in our houses.
7. Our lives have been completely transformed with the appearance of electricity.
8. The generator replaced batteries that had been used before.
9. The consumption of electricity has doubled every ten years.
Упражнение 3.4 Найдите и выделите подлежащее и сказуемое в предложениях.
1. That electricity is clean and easily-regulated is its great advantage.
2. The important fact is that electricity offers improved service at reduced cost.
3. That the two scientists Lodygyn and Yablochkov were the first in Russia to work in the field of electrical engineering is well-known.
4. One of the main advantages of electricity is that it does not pollute the environment.
5. The indicator of nation development is how much electricity is consumed per capita.
6. What has been and is being done in environment protection cannot be measured by yesterday’s standards.
Упражнение 3.5 Определите время и залог глагола-сказуемого. Письменно переведите предложения.
В. 1. It is evident that electricity will be the energy of the future.
2. The transformer was invented and the first electric lines and networks were set up at the end of the 19th century.
3. New powerful electric stations must be built because it is electricity that offers improved standards of life and work.
4. A combination of electric lines and networks are being set up throughout the country.
5. Electric power has become universal.
6. Electricity is transmitted to distant parts of this country by a combination of electric networks.
7. Our power stations have been connected by high voltage transmission lines into several networks.
Упражнение 8. Найдите
application, appliance, latest, power, use, enable, reach, device, longstanding, make it possible, achieve, energy, transform, old, turn to, most recent;
future, unlimited, with, past, necessary, limited, old, unnecessary, without, present.
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о преимуществах солнечной энергии в качестве источника электричества.
Solar Light by Night
Most people living in towns consider it a usual thing that streets are lit at night. But street lights need a power supply (источник энергии) therefore distant areas with no source of electricity remain in darkness until the sun comes up again.
With new appliances now offered by several British firms, many distant places could be lit with solar-powered street lights. It may seem strange that the lamps can use the power of the sun which shines by day when the lamps are needed at night, but they work by using energy accumulated during the day from a solar panel. The solar panel produces electricity which charges (заряжать) a battery. When the sun goes down, the battery power is then used for lighting. Each lamp has its own panel so the system can be used for one individual light or a number of them.
In the south of Saudi Arabia a motorway tunnel miles from any power supply is lit day and night by solar-powered devices. The solar panels provide power during the day and charge batteries which accumulate enough power to light the tunnel at night. The generation of electricity by batteries is still expensive but the advantage of sun-powered lamps is that they can bring light to areas distant from any other power supply.
There is one more advantage of solar power: not only it is unlimited, but also its use does not pollute the environment. That is why it is very important to develop devices which make it possible to transform solar power into mechanical or electric forms of power.
Прочитайте текст. Найдите информацию о наиболее перспективных источниках энергии и об основных отличиях нетрадиционных источников энергии от традиционных. Изложите основное содержание текста по-английски.
Non-traditional Renewable Sources of Energy
It is known that much is being done in the world today for the development of non-traditional sources of energy. Without them the Earth cannot support its present population of 5 billion people and probably 8 billion people in the 21st century.
Now we are using traditional power sources, that is, oil, natural gas, coal and water power with the consumption of more than 50 billion barrels per year. It is evident that these sources are not unlimited.
That is why it is so important to use such renewable sources of energy as the sun, wind, geothermal energy and others. Research is being carried out in these fields.
One of the most promising (перспективный) research is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy into electricity on the basis of photo-effect. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts and effective area of only 0.5 sq.m., which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. This idea is now being intensively developed in many countries,
However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of the limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by developing different combinations of solar power stations and traditional ones — thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle. It will operate on products of the transformation of solar energy, whereas the «solar» chemical reactor uses C02 and water steam of the thermal power station. The result is that we have a closed cycle.
In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water-steam mixture from the depths of about a kilometre. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of mountains at a depth of four—five km.
It is planned that plants working on the energy of the solar heat provided by the sun will be built on a larger scale.
That different wind energy plants are being developed is also well-known. These energy plants can be small (of several kilowatts) and large powerful systems.
It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the energy problem as a whole and they do not have negative effects on the environment.