Английский изучают врачи и инженеры, бизнесмены и обыватели. Знание английского языка способствует карьерному росту.
I. Переведите текст на русский язык.
Engineering - what’s it all about?
Engineering is largely a practical activity. It is about putting ideas into action. Civil engineering is concerned with making bridges, roads, airports, etc. Mechanical engineering deals with the design and manufacture of tools and machines. Electrical engineering is about the generation and distribution of electricity and its many applications. Electronic engineering is concerned with developing components and equipment for communications, computing, and so on.
Mechanical engineering includes marine, automobile, aeronautical, heating and ventilating, and others. Electrical engineering includes electricity generating, electrical installation, lighting, etc. Mining and medical engineering belong partly to mechanical and partly to electrical.
Engineering is a science which deals with design, construction and operation of structures, machines, engines and other devices used in industry and everyday life. That there is no single meaning of this word makes it sometimes difficult to find the proper Russian equivalents at once. The most widely used ones are: техника, строительство, машиностроение, инженерное дело.
The term “engineering” is a modern one. However, the art of building houses, palaces, temples, pyramids and other structures was known as far back as many thousand years ago. Now we call it “civil engineering”. It may be of interest for the students to learn that at the time of the Roman Empire there were already two branches of engineering: civil engineering and military engineering. The former included the building of houses, roads, bridges, etc., the latter* the building of fortifications and military devices. It is still possible to find the remains of Roman
structures not only in Italy but also in some other countries, the ones that were occupied by the Roman legions. Among those countries one may mention the territory of modem England which remained under Roman rule for about four centuries.
As time went on**, the art of civil engineering was enriched with new achievements of science. It grew into a profession that required college training. Nowadays, civil engineering may be spoken of as*** an important branch of national economy. It deals not only with the building of houses, bridges, roads, tunnels, dams, water systems, etc., but also with the construction of railroads, underground railways, industrial structures, land, water and air transport, etc.
II. Определите, к какой части речи относятся слова одного корня, затем переведите слова.
Consume, consumer, promote, promotion, implement, implementation, grow, growth, differ, different, necessity, main, mainly, historic, decide, decision, decisive, divide, relative, relatively, relativity, relation, efficient, efficiently, efficiency.
III. Перевести предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на инфинитивные обороты и инфинитив в различных функциях.
1. A minicomputer is said to be very much the same as the mainframe.
2. The problem is to use pressure of the water passing though the tube in great quantities.
3. The discharge to be studied passes between two electrodes.
IV. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, подчеркните причастие и определите функции каждого из них.
1. The new methods of measurements developed lately differ greatly from the old ones.
2. The instructions being right, the computer solves problems easily.
3. Data being stored in the computer can be used in new programs.
4. Having stored data a programmer can use them in his new programs.
5. The results obtained gave the stability of the system under conditions given above.
V. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на условные предложения.
1. If a substance conducts electricity, it will be heated.
2. Were the temperature conditions normal, this substance would not melt.
3. If the temperature was high, the substance would melt.
VI. Перепишите предложения, раскройте скобки и употребите соответствующее время.
Last night I .................................(just/go) bed and ..................(read) a book
when suddenly I....................(hear) a noise. I...................(get) up to see what it was
but I.......................(not/see) anything, so I.......................(go) back to bed.
Mary had to go to New York last week, but she almost ..........................(miss) the
plane. She.........................(stand) in the queue at the check-in desk when she suddenly
..........................(realise) that she .............................(have) time to take a taxi home
to get it. She....................(leave) her passport at home. Fortunately, she doesn't live very
far from the airport, so she (have) time to take a taxi home to get it. She .......................(get) back to the airport just in time for her flight.
VII. Сделайте аннотацию текста, используя следующие фразы:
- Сообщается о...
- Подробно говорится.......
- Особое внимание уделяется......
- В заключении автор говорит (сообщает)........
People have tried to make some written messages secret from the time that writing developed. There are many examples of that in stone drawings, different tablets and papyruses showing that ancient Egyptians, Babylonians and Assyrians all invented special systems to cipher* and decipher information. In fact the Greeks were the inventors of the first cipher. During the 4th century BC Aeneas Tactucus wrote a work in which one chapter was devoted to cryptography, that was initially concerned with providing secrecy for written messages. Another Greek, Polybius, invented a device with the help of which it was possible to use alternative ways of writing letters. He proposed to use other symbols instead of letters or change the position of letters to encode them.
The Romans proposed to change the position of letters in the alphabet to cipher written messages. Julius Caesar used a change of three positions so that the original message A was enciphered as D, while Augustus Caesar applied a change of one position and the original letter A was encoded as B.
The first people to clearly understand the principles of cryptography were the Arabs. As a result, by about 1412 they could make visible contributions to cryptographic systems by giving complete instructions on how to encode the text with a great amount of illustrations.
As for European cryptology it dates from the Middle Ages. The first European record of it (1379) was made by Gabriele de Vavinde, who served Pope VII. Then the first short code vocabularies appeared and by I860 large codes and cypher systems were in common use for diplomatic and military communications. In the history of the United States codes and book ciphers were widely used in the Civil War by the Federal Army.