Английский язык дает дополнительные возможности деловым людям и всем, кто бывает за границей.
Контрольные работы по английскому
Есть множество контрольных по английскому. В том числе создаются контрольные для будущих юристов. Эти контрольные дают возможность повторить юридическую английскую лексику.
1. Откройте скобки, употребляя причастие I или герундий. Переведите письменно предложения:
1. (to be) the most serious offences (murder, genocide, and incitement), these cases are always tried by High Court judges.
2. The students of a law-college had no experience in (to cross-examine) the witnesses.
3. I remember (to read) the Act about holding offenders in custody.
4. The Attorney-General is a legal adviser to the government and as such – a (to practice) barrister and head of the English Bar.
5. (to prevent) crimes the police perform its main function.
6. Several people have been detained on suspicion of (to attack) a group of Korean citizens.
7. He hated (to remind) people of their duties or (to remind) of his.
2. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод причастия I:
1. Crime is one of the most disturbing elements of modern life in America.
2. Being a well-known figure in public life, the American judge decided to become a candidate for Congress.
3. Having told everything he knew, the witness left the box.
4. Having been questioned, he was released on bail in the interests of the investigation.
5. Offence relating questions may normally not be put to a person after he or she has been charged with that offence.
6. He was gunned down by police while resisting arrest.
7. The main function of Parliament is to make laws regulating the life of the country.
3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на перевод герундия:
1. There are grounds for opening another criminal case.
2. The constable ceased receiving visitors at 6 p.m.
3. Britain formally asked Russia for assistance in receiving information crucial to the investigation into the death of the former Russian FSB officer.
4. During the trial he confessed to organizing the attacks.
5. On hearing in Congress the case on impeachment to President Kennedy the senators of the democratic and republican parties took the floor.
6. Besides admitting his fault an accused brought his apologies to the victim.
4. Прочитайте и постарайтесь понять следующий текст. Письменно переведите:
England and Wales courts
The more serious criminal cases are tried on the basis of a document called the indictment – the defendant is indicted on criminal charges specified in the indictment by the prosecutor. In most cases, the prosecution is on behalf of the Crown (the State) and is handled by an official agency being called the Crown Prosecution Service, which takes the case over from the police who have already investigated most of the evidence.
The first stage will be to decide whether it is a prima facie case. This process, called committal, will be dealt with by a magistrate on the basis of evidence disclosed in papers provided by the prosecutor. If the case proceeds, it is heard in the Crown Court.
The trial is before a judge and jury. The judge presides over the trial process by attempting to ensure clarity and fairness. The judge considering and deciding on legal issues (such as whether a piece of evidence is admissible - should be put before the jury) instructs the jury as to the correct view of the law relevant to the case.
Deciding the facts – whose story is more believable – and applying the law to those facts is the function of the jury. So it is the jury, not the judge, which reaches a verdict on the guilt or innocence of the defendant. In criminal cases, the prosecution has the burden of proof – it must prove guilt, rather than the defendant having to prove innocence. The standard (= level) of proof is heavy – guilt must be proven beyond reasonable doubt.
In less serious criminal cases, comprising over 90% of criminal cases, the case is sent for summary trial in one of over 400 magistrates’ courts. A summary trial means there is no committal and no jury. The trial is before a bench of magistrates.
In most cases, there are three magistrates who are “lay” persons – in other words, they are not professional judges nor are they lawyers, but, like the jury, they are persons from the local community. However, there is now an increasing number of “stipendiary” magistrates – paid magistrates who are qualified lawyers. Stipendiary magistrates are, for historical reasons, most common in London and in other large cities.
5. Письменно сообщите, какую информацию из текста вы выделили о:
1. The functions of the judge.
2. The summary trial.
6. Выпишите из текста выделенные инговые формы и укажите их функции в предложении:
Образец: We insist on sending him there at once. – Мы настаиваем на том, чтобы его немедленно отправили туда.
Sending – герундий в функции предложного дополнения.
7. Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты следующих слов и выражений:
4. наличие достаточно серьезных доказательств для возбуждения дела
6. судебный процесс, осуществляемый без участия присяжных
7. не профессиональный человек
8. мировой судья.