Чтобы хорошо выполнять переводы, необходимо хорошо знать английский язык. Существует множество пособий по изучению английского языка. Если вы выучите английский язык, то и переводить будете легко.
1. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание специфику перевода герундия. Укажите форму и функцию в каждом случае.
The judge started asking the witnesses questions by the defence.
Судья начал задавать вопросы свидетелям, выставленным защитой.
Asking - the Active Simple Gerund, функция - часть сказуемого
1. There are grounds for opening another criminal case.
2. The constable ceased receiving visitors at 6 p.m.
3. Britain formally asked Russia for assistance in receiving information crucial to the investigation into the death of the former Russian FSB officer.
4. During the trial he confessed to organizing the attacks.
5. On hearing in Congress the case on impeachment to President Kennedy the senators of the democratic and republican parties took the floor.
6. Besides admitting his fault an accused brought his apologies tothe victim.
7. The prisoner was accused of attacking and wounding a nightwatchman.
8. This investigatory experiment is worth repeating.
2. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обращая
внимание специфику перевода инфинитива. Укажите форму и
функцию в каждом случае.
Образец: To know laws is the duty of all citizens. – Знать закон - обязанность каждого гражданина. To know - the Simple Active Infinitive,
1. To smoke marijuana is a crime in England.
2. The right to leave and to return to one’s own country means the freedom of movement.
3. They want to participate in the international conference devoted to the problems of human rights.
4. He is given the opportunity to apply for legal aid.
5. Do judges of the Supreme Court have power to sit in the country courts?
6. She has not lost the will to live.
7. During the trial the defendant has the right to cross-examine witnesses for the prosecution.
8. A police car had to swerve to avoid him.
3. Выпишите сначала 3 предложения, в состав которых входит сложное подлежащее, а затем 3 предложения со сложным дополнением. В каждом случае подчеркните слова, составляющие инфинитивный оборот, и определите форму инфинитива. Предложения переведите.
1. They consider his case to come before the court within the shortest possible time.
2. They are sure to have consulted their solicitor.
3. Criminal is said to have shot somebody dead.
4. I want you to add some words about the procedure.
5. At first the criminal tried to escape, but it was unsuccessful. The police seemed to be quicker.
6. The lawyer pulled out a chair and made the woman sit down.
4. Прочитайте и перепишите текст. Письменно переведите:
England and Wales courts
The more serious criminal cases are tried on the basis of a document called the indictment – the defendant is indicted on criminal charges specified in the indictment by the prosecutor. In most cases, the prosecution is on behalf of the Crown (the State) and is handled by an official agency being called the Crown Prosecution Service, which takes the case over from the police who have already investigated most of the evidence.The first stage will be to decide whether it is a prima facie case.This process, called committal, will be dealt with by a magistrate on the basis of evidence disclosed in papers provided by the prosecutor. If the case proceeds, it is heard in the Crown Court.The trial is before a judge and jury. The judge presides over the trial process by attempting to ensure clarity and fairness. The judge’s functionsare considering and deciding on legal issues (such as whether a piece of evidence is admissible - should be put before the jury) and instructing the jury as to the correct view of the law relevant to the case. To decide the facts – whose story is more believable – and to apply the law to those facts is the function of the jury. So it is the jury, not the judge, which reaches a verdict on the guilt or innocence of the defendant. In criminal cases, the prosecution has the burden of proof – it must proveguilt, rather than the defendant having to prove innocence. The standard (=level) of proof is heavy – guilt must be proven beyond reasonable doubt.In less serious criminal cases, comprising over 90% of criminal cases, the case is sure to be sent for summary trial in one of over 400 magistrates’courts. A summary trial means there is no committal and no jury.The trial is before a bench of magistrates.In most cases, there are three magistrates who are “lay” persons –in other words, they are not professional judges nor are they lawyers, but,like the jury, they are persons from the local community. However, there is now an increasing number of “stipendiary” magistrates – paid magistrates who are qualified lawyers. Stipendiary magistrates are, for historical reasonsare considered to be most common in London and in other large cities.
5. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту:
1. How are the more serious criminal cases tried?
2. What is the function of the first stage?
3. Is there any difference between the functions of the judge and the jury?
4. When is the case sent for summary trial?
5. There is no committal and no jury in the Crown Court, isn’t there?
6. Which kind of magistrates are most common in London?
6. Выпишите из текста английские эквиваленты следующих слов и
1. обвинительный акт;
3. заключение под стражу;
4. наличие достаточно серьезных доказательств для возбуждения дела;
6. судебный процесс, осуществляемый без участия присяжных;
7. не профессиональный человек;
8. мировой судья.