Чтобы получить правильные ответы на контрольные работы, студент должен выучить все необходимые темы.
Упражнение 3. Поставьте глагол в соответствующем времени в зависимости от обстоятельства.
This student (study) physics (at present, every day, last semester, when the telephone rang, tomorrow at this time, next semester).
Упражнение 4. Переведите предложения.
1. Сейчас у нас урок английского языка. Преподаватель стоит у доски и объясняет новую грамматику. Студенты внимательно слушают и записывают.
2. Где вы были вчера после обеда? Я был дома весь день. Я писал письмо друзьям.
3. Что ты делал пять минут назад?
4. На нашей улице произошел не¬счастный случай (accident). Я смотрел в окно, когда он произошел.
5. Что будет делать твоя сестра в 8 часов вечера? Она будет выполнять домашнее задание.
6. Какие вопросы будут обсуждаться сегодня на собрании? — Приходите в 12 часов. Будет обсуждаться очень интересный вопрос.
7. Когда мы приехали в город, там строился новый спортклуб.
Упражнение 5. Переведите предложения с it в различных функциях.
1. It is autumn. It is the 3rd of October. It is dark in the morning and it is difficult to get up.
2. It is a new subject. It is very important for our future speciality. We shall study it for two years. It will be our future speciality, but we do not know much about it in the first year.
3. It is known that the knowledge of general engineering subjects is the basis for the study of special subjects.
4. It seems that he works a lot.
5. It is said that the chemistry laboratory of our institute is good.
6. The student finds it difficult to translate such a text without a dictionary.
7. It was not easy to study at the institute.
8. It is important to understand the fundamentals of this science.
9. It was A.S. Popov who invented the radio.
10. It is the knowledge of general engineering subjects that is the basis of engineering training.
Прочитайте текст и ответьте, какие меры необходимы для успешного решения проблемы зашиты окружающей среды в глобальном масштабе.
Environment Protection Must Be Global
That the problem of pollution and ecology has become the most important one for mankind is evident to all. The more civilization is developing, the greater the ecological problems are becoming. Air and water pollution by industry is now reaching tremendous proportions. In our era it is changing from a national to an international problem, especially in territories where rivers cross several countries. The seas and oceans are also becoming seriously polluted. A similar situation is developing in the atmosphere. It is known that many cities throughout the world suffer from air pollution.
However, our scientific knowledge and technological advancement make it possible to eliminate it if people use good will1 and make considerable investments for that purpose. The development of natural resources on a global scale is already possible from a scientific and technical standpoint2. Large-scale experimental work in this area is successfully being carried out.
At present scientists in industrially developed countries are working on the theory of interaction of all the atmospheric and oceanic global processes that determine the climate and weather of the world. Increasing growth of population, industrialization and the use of resources are slowly but surely changing the global climate and water balance. This can be described as a great experiment, one that may bring about changes in the environment more serious than ever before.
The essential feature in the environment protection is that many problems can be solved only on the level of world community3. Therefore, the planning of protection against pollution by human society as a whole4 is imperative today and in the near future. It is necessary to develop an international program to study data on land, forest, atmospheric and oceanic resources, both renewable and non-renewable. It is the joint efforts of many scien¬tists and special public organizations that can deal with the problem and take necessary measures to protect the environment.
It is still a big job and much remains to be done5. However, scientists are confident that planned actions of all countries can eliminate pollution and achieve successes in purifying air, water and soil and in safeguarding natural resources. At the same time one must realize that social and political circumstances may stand in the way of further progress in this field.
Упражнения к тексту 1. Письменно ответьте на вопросы к тексту
1. What is this text about?
2. What is ecology?
3. How does water (air) become polluted?
4. Why is the problem of water pollution becoming a global problem?
А. Найдите предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в Continuous Passive, письменно переведите.
1. Cambridge University was formed in the 12th century.
2. The solution of ecological problems may be achieved only by joint efforts of all countries.
3. Great changes in people’s lives and work were brought about by the scientific and technological progress.
4. The theory of interaction of atmospheric and oceanic processes is being developed to determine the weather of the planet.
5. The teachers at Cambridge are called «dons» or «tutors».
6. Computers and lasers are being widely introduced at plants and factories.
7. The most important ecological problems must be considered at the govern¬ment level.
8. The training at Cambridge and Oxford is carried out by tutorial system.
В. Переделайте предложения из действительного в страдательный залог.
1. Не is writing a letter at the moment.
2. John was preparing report all day yesterday.
3. We are learning grammar now.
4. At present mankind is making considerable investments to eliminate air pollution.
5. Today the changes in the global climate and water balance are bringing about serious changes in the environment.
6. Many scientists are constantly carrying out experimental work to solve the problem of environment protection.
7. The company is making plans for the future.
Определите функции it, on и that, переведите предложения на русский язык письменно
1. The problem that has become the most important one is the problem of pollution.
2. One can easily understand why the profession of an engineer requires a special college training.
3. The new technologies that are being developed must be connected with traditional ones.
4. That air and water pollution by industrialization is reaching dangerous levels is realized by everyone.
5. It is the invention of an engine that started the first industrial revolution.
6. The main purpose of education is that graduates must be able to work with the technology of tomorrow.
7. The education in Oxford and Cambridge is different in many ways from that in other universities.
8. We discussed the first industrial revolution, the one that took place some centuries ago.
9. New robots will have several manipulators that will carry out many functions.
10. That computers and robots are important for industrial uses is well known to scientists and engineers.
11. One must realize that the increasing number of cars brings about considerable pollution of the air.
12. It is the growth of industrialization that is changing the climate of the planet.
13. The essential feature of higher education in this country is that it combines theory with practice.
14. The simplest materials are those which have only one kind of atoms.
15. That the Earth is round was unknown for a long time.
16. It is found that the labour (труд) of a man with secondary education is 108 per cent more efficient than that of a man without that education. Moreover, the work of a university or college graduate is 300 per cent more efficient than that of a specialist with secondary education.
Найдите среди слов
slowly, old, at present, small, quickly, in the past, new, large;
tremendous, epoch, realize, several, work, progress, great, field, era, understand, make it possible, different, achieve, some, advance, enable, area, various, reach, essential, job, important.
Упражнение 9. Придумайте предложения со следующими глаголами-сказуемыми.
will be changing,
will be developing,
are being introduced,
was being solved.
Упражнение 10. Письменно ответьте на вопросы.
1. What problem is becoming a global problem?
2. What makes it possible to eliminate air and water pollution?
3. What are scientists in industrially developed countries currently working on?
4. What factors are slowly changing the global climate and water balance?
5. What actions are necessary to take to deal successfully with the problem of protecting the environment throughout the world?
Прочитайте текст. Расскажите по-английски о результатах исследования, проведенного Всемирной организацией здравоохранения.
Ecological Problems of Big Cities
There are over 150 supercities in the world with population from one to 15 million and more. Tokyo, New York, London,
Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro and Moscow are just a few of the cities which have become supercities.
People in the supercities suffer from polluted environment: bad water, bad air and noise. A new term, urban (городской) climate, is used now for such cities. It means high temperature, oppressive atmosphere and intensive smog.
Some experts consider that it is practically impossible to protect the big cities from pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) studied air pollution around the world for over eight years.
It measured two things: the level of sulphur dioxide (S02) in the air and the level of smoke. Sulphur dioxide and smoke pollute water and have serious effect on forest, buildings and health of people.
In the WHO report it is shown that the cities with the most considerable level of C02 in the air are Milan, Teheran, Prague, Santiago and Sao Paulo. However, some cities with clean air get worse in winter. Helsinki, for example, becomes one of the cities with the largest proportion of it in the air in winter. This must be connected with the heating of houses. One can also mention (упоминать)
Glasgow and Warsaw which suffer in the same way.
Текст 3. Прочитайте текст. Укажите отрицательные стороны научно-технического прогресса. Письменно переведите текст на русский язык.
The British, like many other Europeans, are becoming more and more worried (беспокоиться) about their environment. Here are some of the environmental problems that they face.
As the population of large cities like London, Birmingham and Manchester continues to grow, pollution problems become worse.
The air in many towns and cities is being polluted by traffic (транспорт, движение) and industry. The number of cars and lorries is growing all the time. On the one hand, they bring mobility to millions of people, but on the other hand, they need bigger, better and more expensive roads, which often ruin the countryside (сельская местность). Traffic in cities is getting worse and worse.
Water pollution has become a serious problem in many British rivers. People living near airports suffer from the noise of increasingly larger and more powerful jet airliners taking off and landing.
Выберите одну из тем. Подготовьте монологическое высказывание по одной из данных тем.
1. The problem of pollution and ecology is one of the most important problems of mankind.
2. Ecological problems in your home town, especially the problem of air pollution.