Контрольные по английскому
Контрольные выполняются строго в соответствии с образцами. Контрольные работы решают практически все студенты из разных городов страны. Контрольные по английскому необходимо решать тем, кто изучает английский язык. Контрольные дают соответствующий практический опыт.
Fitting ink to paper and press
1. Perhaps the most difficult problem in the printing industry is the fitting оf the ink both to paper and press. Let us look at printing processes and type of presses, and the properties which inks should have in each case.
2. Letterpress inks are designed for printing from raised surfaces. What is of great importance here is the method by which the inked form is brought into contact with the paper. This may be done in three ways: platen, flat bed cylinder and rotary methods.
3. In platen machines the paper generally contacts the form over the whole area at once. It is undesirable that the ink should be made too sticky. It must have moderate tack and viscosity.
4. In flat-bed cylinder machines the paper is held on a revolving cylinder while the inked form slides to and fro beneath it. Since only part of the form is under pressure at any moment, much larger areas can be printed without the use of great mechanical force (although the pressure per square inch is still high). Thus cylinder machines are able to print successfully with inks of a wider range of consistency than platens or rotaries.
5. Rotary machines are capable of much higher speeds. Examples of such machines are newspaper rotaries printing at speeds up to 50,000 i.p.h. News inks are of relatively low viscosity and are generally wholly based on hydrocarbon oils. A typical news ink consists of a dispersion or carbon black in a mineral oil of suitable viscosity, containing additional toners to improve colour, and small quantities of other additives to control such properties as flow, penetration and rub resistance.
6. Lithographic inks are designed to print from plates that have neither raised nor recessed image areas. The demands put upon lithographic inks are rather unusual. In printing, the plate has to be dampened, then inked, then the impression is taken, either direct on the paper or through the intermediary rubber «offset» blanket. It follows that there will be a tendency to form an emulsion between the greasy ink and the solution employed for damping. Printing, in fact, depends on a good balance between two emulsification systems, oil in water and water in oil.
7. Printing images in gravure are known to consist of a great number of small cells and the ink is sucked out of them by the printing stock. According to the nature of the process rotogravure inks must be very fluid with good flow properties, they must have low adhesion to the image carrier, but at the same time good adhesion to the paper.
2. Выпишите из текста все предложения с модальными глаголами и эквивалентами модальных глаголов. К каждому из выписанных предложений задайте по 4 вопроса: 1- общий; 2- специальный; 3- к подлежащему; 4-разделительный.
3. Выпишите из текста и переведите предложения, где есть прилагательные и наречия в сравнительной или превосходной степенях сравнения. Подчеркните эти слова.
4. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод слова too.
1. This magazine is published in our print shop too.
2. Too much water on the offset plate will result in poor printing.
3. Hand composition is too slow to be used in the age of mechanization.
5. Задайте 10 вопросов к тексту.