Контрольная по английскому Generation of oil


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Контрольная состоит из девяти заданий. В контрольной есть грамматические задания и задания на перевод текстов. Чтобы перевести текст с английского языка на русский язык или с русского на английский, необходимо знать грамматику и лексику английского языка.


Generation of oil


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Вариант 2

Задание 1
Перепишите предложения. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную вид о-временную форму активного и пассивного залога. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

The mechanic (to repair - ремонтировать) our car by Saturday.
The new machines (not to test - испытывать) in the near future.
These two engines (to generate - производить, генерировать) enough electric power for a town.
Flight controls (to damage - повредить) by the energy pulse.
The fact that women leave science (to document - отражать в документах) well.
Disaster (to strike - ударить, поразить) the Institute of Radioastronomy in France for the second time this year.
Surprising information on human immunodeficiency (to obtain - получать) from an animal model of viral transmission.
Later teachers (to recognize - признавать) the importance of the subtechnical and technical words and phrases.
Students were given a text from a technical journal and they (to show - показывать) a great interest in it.
The Web (to use - использовать) extensively for research and for communication via e- mail.

Задание 2
Перепишите предложения, выделите глаголы to be/ to have/ to do и определите их функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

Though the war did not threaten any vital US interests, it did cause important problems.
The US Department participated less actively in the international environment than did its European counterparts (коллеги).
Before the fuel entered the cylinder, it had to pass through a wide injection channel.
An atom-beam microscope will be a unique instrument for examining structures.
Six helicopters are to be produced within a year.
The company has 41 firm orders.
The consortium has developed most of the electronics optics and lasers needed for working systems.
The company will have to do some work on a civil supersonic aircraft. Задание 3

Перепишите предложения. Выделите служебные слова it, that, one, определите их функцию и переведите предложения на русский язык. Распознайте усилительную конструкцию It is/ was ... who/ that - именно ...; It was no before/ until ... when - только после ...

One can find the necessary information in this journal.
It is believed that the telephone was invented by A.G. Bell.
Similar problems appeared one year later.
It was thus (таким образом) that he began to investigate the airplane propeller.
Opening new streets or widening existing ones caused great protest.
The Eiffel Tower came in for a lot criticism when it was first built.

Задание 4
Перепишите предложения. Заполните пропуски одним из союзных слов (who, what, that, which, where, when, whose), укажите, в каких предложениях союз можно не употреблять). Переведите предложения на русский язык.

We have good prospects in Norway ... they want 20 to 30 aircraft.
Control of another satellite was lost... its gyroscopes were disrupted (вышли из строя).
The European Space Agency said ... five more experiments will be made next year.
Who knows ... may happen in the future.
We want people ... are proud to be part of the team (коллектив) ... they see the aircraft flying.
The professor was a man ... work I had admired (восхищаться).
The disruptions (перебои в работе) ... we have faced are now behind us.

Задание 5
Перепишите предложения. Выделите инфинитив, герундий и причастие и определите их функцию. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

At the show yesterday the company demonstrated weapons to be fired from ground, shipborne or submarine platforms.
The organizers expect to attract around 400 exhibitors (участник выставки), including 50 aircraft manufacturers (изготовители).
The company concentrated on making products of its own design.
Small rocked thrusters (пушки) on a satellite started firing, shifting (to shift - смещать) the spacecraft out of its position.
To provide improved passenger comfort Boeing has ordered 150 new air-conditioning units.
The 11 helicopters being built now are for the British Ministry of Defense.

Задание 6 Перепишите предложения, распознайте и выделите инфинитивные обороты - объектный, субъектный, определительный и обстоятельственный.

The market for aircraft is likely to be about 1,040 units over the next 20 years.
We expect the contract for 60 to 90 aircraft to be signed by the end of the year.
The sun is expected to leave with solar flares and solar explosion.
The 15-week test programme to check the effectiveness of the equipment has been finished successfully.
Someone is supposed to have said that the best place in Paris was the top of the Eiffel Tower.
The new maintenance venture (предприятие), to be called Central European Engine Services, will service engines worldwide.
We expect commercial aviation aircraft to continue the trend (тенденция) toward more in-flight comfort.
Engineers from different countries met at annual conferences to exchange information and discuss common problems.
In order to (для того, чтобы) provide engineers with a better understanding of economic and business, some schools offered industrial engineering programs.

Задание 7
Перепишите предложения, выделите причастные обороты - определительный, дополнительный, обстоятельственный и независимый.

When asked, the crew denied having consumed alcohol.
They are working with existing materials, looking for ways to preserve the holograms longer.
The temperature of air leaving the engine's compressor is 10% of the temperature of the surface of the sun.
A gas mixture will change slightly, heavy gases moving toward colder regions.
There is big interest in weight being taken out of aircraft.
The patents being useful to the businesses of the company, the company will give due (соответствующий) rewards to the patentees (автор патента).
This photograph shows the Graf Zeppelin flying over the train station.

Задание 8
Сослагательное наклонение. Перепишите предложения. Определите тип условного предложения, переведите предложение на русский язык.

If the fire alarm goes off, evacuate the buildings immediately.
If I were you, I would see a lawyer.
If we have a significant problem, we will discuss it with our partner.
If any threat (угроза) remained a limited strategic system could be more destabilizing than a complete one.
Flame and smokeproof (дымонепроницаемое) barriers would have isolated the fire from the rest of the train if fire suppression systems had been activated.

Задание 9
Смотрите образцы выполнения заданий.

Тексты к контрольному заданию №2
Generation of Oil
Oil is generated in sedimentary basins. These basins are shallow depressions on the continents that have intermittently (прерывисто, перемежаясь) been covered with seawater, or offshore basins on continental shelves. They are hundreds of square kilometers in area and contain sediments of three types:
rock particles varying from sands to clay muds, which were eroded from mountains and were carried to the basins by streams;
biochemical and chemical precipitates such as limestone gypsum, anhydrite;
organic matter from the plants and animals that lived in the sea or were carried in by rivers.
The third type of sediment, the organic matter, is the source of petroleum. Evidence (свидетельство) for this is the fact that petroleum contains small amounts of several substances that could have come only from living things. Examples of these are porphyry related to (родственный) hemi and chlorophyll.
It is believed that oil is generated from organic matter in two ways. A small amount probably less than 10 % comes directly from the hydrocarbons (углеводородные соединения) that marine organisms form as part of their living cells. The second process, by which about 90 % of the oil is formed, involves the formation of hydrocarbons from the decay and alteration of buried, organic matter. Nearly all of the hydrocarbons containing up to 10 carbon atoms are formed in this manner. By the time the sediments are buried to depths of 500 - 700 m, enough hydrocarbons have been generated to enable a commercial oil field to form under favourable accumulation conditions. It is estimated there are 6000x109 tons of petroleum in the reservoir rocks of the continents and continental shelves of the world.
Questions to be answered in writing:

Where is oil generated?
What are the types of sediments which sedimentary basins contain?
Where is oil generated from?
How much petroleum is available in reservoir rocks (of the world)?