Контрольные работы по английскому языку
Назначение контрольных работ - оценить знания студентов. Кроме контрольных работ знания студентов также могут оценить всевозможные тесты. Чтобы сдать тест правильно, необходимо выучить грамматику английского языка. Если вы знаете грамматику английского языка, то вы наверняка дадите правильные ответы на тесты.
1 . Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык. Подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
1. Chemical science is successfully solving many complex problems.
2. Radio astronomy has given mankind efficient means for penetration into space.
3. Today scientists are still looking for the substance as a source of energy.
4. The Mendelyeev system has served for almost 100 years as a key to discovering new elements.
5. The reactor is fast becoming a major source of heat and electricity.
1. Becguerel's discovery was followed by an intensive research work of Marie and Pierre Curie.
2. Heat energy is transmitted in two different ways.
3. Synthetic rubber products were developed between 1914 and 1930s.
4. The intensity of this process is influenced by many factors.
5. Elements are transformed into other elements both by man and by nature.
2. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола - сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre used in clothing.
2. The atoms forming our planet are built of negative electrons, positive protons and ordinary neutrons.
3. This kind of treatment when used makes the metals heat- resistant.
4. When passing through an electroscope, X-rays cause its discharge.
5. Molecular crystals are solids constructed of molecules held together by relatively weak forces.
6. A body moving with a certain velocity carries within itself the kinetic energy of motion.
7. While absorbing the energy of cosmic rays the upper atmosphere becomes radioactive.
8. Unless property treated the metal must not be applied for space technology.
9. These reactions convert hydrogen into helium, giving off a great amount of light and heat.
10. The formula E = mc2 deduced by Einstein is perhaps the most well-known equation in the world.
3. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. One object may be larger than another one, but it may weigh less.
2. Mass can also be defined as a measure of inertia.
3. Man-made satellites had to use solar cells as a source of power.
4. Plastics should be reinforced by different kinds of fibres (to reinforce - усиливать, укреплять).
5. Energy can exist in many forms and each form can be transformed into the other.
6. The computers should become an integral part of the organization of industrial processes of all types.
7. These metal parts had to be subjected to X-ray examination.
8. The chemists may use the reactor to analyse various substances for their exact composition.
9. Laser light can be used to transmit power of various types.
10. The application of digital (цифровой) computers should include all forms of automatic control in science and industry.
4. Перепишите и переведите письменно следующий текст.
Goodbye, Allofmp3.com, Hello, WTO!
By Marina Pustilnik
Last week the infamous music download site Allofmp3.com, whose operation threatened Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO), was "quietly closed". Representatives of the Moscow-based company MediaServices, which operated the site told The Times that the activities ofAllofmp3.com were terminated under pressure from the Russian authorities.
Allofmp3.com was an export-oriented resource and the thorn in the side of Western recording companies. It was considered one of the main vendors of pirated music to the international market. At the end of 2006 recording companies Sony BMG, UMG Recordings and Warner Bros. Records filed a lawsuit against MediaServices in the court of New York, demanding compensation of $1.65 trillion. Also in 2006 representatives of the U.S. administration directly tied possible termination of Allofmp3.com with Russia's accession to the WTO. In Russia the site's owners were also under criminal investigation regarding copyright infringement.
The popularity of Allofmp3.com, which earned up to 80 percent of its annual $10-14 million revenues from the "export" of music tracks, lay in the fact that it sold its music 10 times cheaper than competitors such as iTunes Music Store. The site's owners claimed that its operation was fully legal because MediaServices made deductions to the Russian organization "Russian society for multimedia and digital networks", which collects money in favor of copyright owners. MediaServices also claimed that it was actually preventing music piracy by offering a cheap alternative to free-of-charge file exchange networks. Still, the very existence of the site seemed to undermine the idea of copyright protection the way it is viewed in the West and the pressure on the Russian authorities to close the site continued to mount.
The shutdown of Allofmp3.com could have been predicted, since in recent months Russian authorities started a real crackdown on media pirates. The case of village high school director Alexander Ponosov was the first sign of the new anti-piracy attitude. The second was the order passed down by the Supreme Arbitration Court, which specifies that regional arbitration courts should crack down on internet cafes that use Windows software without getting a special permit for commercial use. Some experts say that the owners ofAllofmp3.com may have decided to close the site themselves for fear that the next legal crackdown will come their way.
The shutdown of Allofmp3.com may mark the start of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization, but it definitely won't solve the problem of piracy. Allofmp3.com was not the only site that sold music cheaply - there are others, which keep lower profiles, just as there are various file-exchange networks, such as e-mule and soulseek as well as file hosting platforms such as yousendit.com or file-factory.com that allow internet users to share files freely. The problem of piracy can be solved only when the definition of piracy has been changed or if the problem of piracy is reconsidered altogether. The owners of Allofmp3.com have already opened a new site called mp3Sparks.com, which is identical to its deceased brother except that the music tracks are now sold for 15 cents apiece instead of the 10 cents that were charged by Allofmp3.com. Experts also point out that the lucrative niche occupied by Allofmp3.com won't be left empty for long. While profit can be made, there are plenty of states whose jurisdiction can be used by such sites to operate in the internet. The World Trade Organization has long turned into a place of bargaining, instead of being a promoter of free trade. With the shutdown of Allofmp3.com and the general crackdown on piracy, Russian authorities have bargained the country's way into the WTO. We will soon see whether Russia finds its membership of the organization worth the sacrifices.