Контрольные работы по английскому языку
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1 You will read about the company Accor which runs the hotel business.
Hotels and globalization
The US represents a considerable challenge. It is very structured and hotel
chains are very strong. US hotels developed by franchises which were very
profitable perhaps because of the size of the market and the image of the brands
– but which are far less profitable in Europe or Asia.
Our initial experiences with our Sofitel and Novotel hotels in the US were
disappointing. Accor was one of the first hotel chains set up in Europe. But in
the US, competition was very intense and we had limited means. In the service
sector, you need critical mass very quickly. US companies can spread their
marketing and publicity expenses across an extensive network. We were a small
troop coming in against a vast army.
We were leaders in budget hotels, and with our brands such as Formule 1,
we are now the world leader. With the acquisition of Motel 6, we have become
leader in value-for-money hotels in the US. We initially had US management
for Motel 6, but we changed that and now have French executives who have
been very effective.
Accor has to be a global company, in view of the revolution in the service
sector which is taking place. I do not see any future for purely national hotel
chains – except for very specific niche markets with special architecture and locations, such as Raffles in Singapore or the Ritz in Paris. National chains cannot
optimize their operations. They cannot invest enough money. Having globalization
as an objective also has the advantage of spreading our risks.
We are expanding in developing countries such as Poland, Brazil, Argentina
and Indonesia. There may be economic problems in the one to two years to
come in one of these countries, but with a good geographical spread we can
avoid worrying about the next two years and take a view instead over five to
Globalization brings considerable challenges which are often underestimated.
The main difficulty is getting our local management to follow the values
of the group. Our Indonesian managers must understand our market and culture,
for example, and we have to learn about theirs. Our 70 executives use videoconferencing and other technical means to keep in touch and are traveling nonstop on aircraft around the world. Every morning when I wake I think about the
challenges of coordinating our operations in many different countries.
2 Decide if the following sentences are correct or incorrect.
1. American hotel chains are more profitable in Europe and Asia.
2. First experience of the hotel business was good for the company.
3. The company is a leader in hotels which are not very expensive.
4. All the hotels have American management.
5. Company believes hotel business is international.
6. Company doesn’t deal with the developing countries.
7. Globalization doesn’t really bring any global changes to the world.
8. Company uses technology in management.
3 Match the words with the definitions.
1. acquisition a. Substantial; not a small amount.
2. effective b. A group of connected parts that work together.
3. expand c. Use different actions, each helping the others to accomplish a single goal.
4. extensive d. Useful; able to accomplish its purpose.
5. network e. A method or way of doing something.
6. perhaps f. Large, or wide in scope.
7. service g. First.
8. coordinate h. To speak or act for another person or group.
9. considerable i. Anything one gets and owns, often by buying
or working for it.
10. vast j. Work done for the benefit of another.
11. initial k. Stay away from.
12. avoid l. To increase in range or scope.
13. represent m. Very large
14. means n. Possibly; maybe.
4 Complete the following sentences from the text with the words in the
1. The US represents a _ challenge.
2. US companies can spread their marketing and publicity expenses across an
3. Our _ experiences with our Sofitel and Novotel hotels in the US were disappointing.
4. But in the US, competition was very intense and we had limited _.
5. In the _ sector, you need critical mass very quickly.
6. We were a small troop coming in against a _ army.
7. We initially had US management for Motel 6, but we changed that and now have French executives who have been very _.
8. There may be economic problems in the one to two years to come in one of these countries, but with a good geographical spread we can _ worrying about the next two years and take a view instead over five to seven years.
9. We are _ in developing countries such as Poland, Brazil, Argentina
10. Every morning when I wake I think about the challenges of _our operations in many different countries.
5 Complete the sentences with the most suitable words from the frame.
1. The ocean is _.
2. The bag was not too heavy to carry but is was still a _weight.
3. Soccer players need to _ their playing with
their team members.
4. The _ step of a revolution is to kill all the lawyers.
5. The built the bridge by the quickest _ possible.
6. She _ her company at the conference.
7. He jumped to the side to _ stepping in the puddle.
8. As the business grew their product line _ and
now they sell everything.
9. This new coat is very _ at keeping me warm.
10. That motorcycle was his biggest _.
11. He has an _ library; there are at least 5,000
books in his house.
12. She helps clean the park as a _ to her community.
13. She is eighteen, _ twenty, but not older.
14. The city bus _ can take you anywhere.
6 You will read people’s opinion on the leadership. Decide who the following
statements belong to (put A, B, C or D).
1. The speaker thinks the staff should feel confidence in the leader.
2. The speaker thinks a leader should be able to use technology.
3. The speaker knows exactly what a leader should be like.
4. The speaker thinks a leader should understand the needs of customers.
5. The speaker supposes a good leader should be ready to invest first to get
6. The speaker thinks the idea is only good if it leads to results.
7. The speaker thinks a leader should know everything that is going on in the
8. The speaker thinks a good leader is unlike all the others.
Comments on the leadership
Maurizio Verna (A)
Long-term, visionary business leaders must be prepared to invest to get
what they want for their company. They know when and how to apply pressure
and to take risks, when they need to display a more hands-off approach. I have a
pretty clear view of my ideal business leader, and of course that's where I'm trying
to head: he or she should start up and grow a cash-rich, multi-interest international
organization of tremendous strength and depth.
Sue Tucker (B)
The pace of technological change, and the rate at which businesses are
changing, requires leaders to have a particular aptitude for technology and an
understanding of the internet. A lot of people are aware of the opportunities
here, but awareness alone isn't enough: in a true leader this needs to be coupled
with clever marketing, product design and technological innovation, and keeping
abreast of everything going on in the company. In fact the acid test, I think,
is being able to use all of these skills to turn around a failing company.
Carol Godfrey (C)
Effective leaders stand out from the herd. They're often idiosyncratic, even eccentric. They have the confidence to be themselves, and not to adopt the language and attributes of the run-of-the-mill professional managers and accountants.
What's crucial is having the charisma or whatever it is that gives their staff
confidence in them, so they can keep everyone on board when they want to make innovations. So often these don't get off the ground because of lack of leadership, because after all, our response to change is significantly affected by how it's introduced.
Brian Matthews (D)
Leadership is about making things happen and being judged by results.
Good ideas that go nowhere are a waste of time. Anticipate needs - those of
customers for instance – and initiate action to meet those needs before the people
concerned have even recognized they've got them. That way you'll always be ahead of the game, whatever line you're in. For instance, top stockbrokers will learn all about you and your business and keep themselves completely up to date with your field in order to advise you. If they're really good they'll recognize trends even before you do.
7 Match the words from the text with the definitions.
1. stand out a. For example.
2. acid b. Essential, very important, necessary.
3. confidence c. The general fashion or direction that something
4. for instance d. Knowing.
5. recognize e. Need
6. technology f. To identify people, places or things from
7. tremendous g. Put two parts together.
8. couple h. be more noticeable in some way than those
9. crucial i. A group of people who work together.
10. aware j. Way of dealing with a person or problem.
11. innovation k. Trust in someone or something.
12. require l. Amazing or amazingly large
13. eccentric m. New and creative method or technology.
14. organization n. Unusual
15. trends o. A chemical, sour to the taste and having a
PH balance of less than 7/
16. approach p. Knowledge of machinery, computers, etc.
8 Complete the sentences from the sentences with the words in the
f. stand out
1. They know when and how to apply pressure and to take risks, when they need to display a more hands-off _.
2. In fact the _ test, I think, is being able to use all of these skills to turn around a failing company.
3. A lot of people are _ of the opportunities here, but awareness
alone isn't enough:
4. In a true leader this needs to be coupled with clever marketing, product design
and technological _, and keeping abreast of everything going on in the company.
5. The pace of technological change, and the rate at which businesses are changing, _ leaders to have a particular aptitude for technology and an understanding of the internet.
6. They have the _ to be themselves, and not to adopt the language
and attributes of the run-of- the-mill professional managers and accountants.
7. What's _ is having the charisma or whatever it is that gives their staff confidence in them, so they can keep everyone on board when they want to make innovations.
8. They're often idiosyncratic, even _.
9. Effective leaders _ from the herd.
10. Anticipate needs- those of customers for instance – and _ action to meet those needs before the people concerned have even recognized they've got them.
11. For _, top stockbrokers will learn all about you and your business and keep themselves completely up to date with your field in order to advise you.
12. If they're really good they'll recognize _ even before you do.
9 Complete the sentences with the words from the frame.
1. The cake _2 eggs.
2. He keeps lizards in his bathtub, which we think is _.
3. Automobiles had been around for more than 20 years before Ford's manufacturing _ made them cheap and popular.
4. Water is _ for life.
5. Are you _ that you there is toilet paper stuck to your shoe?
6. Jim's _ is to study the problem before starting to work, but Mary's is to start working and learn as she goes.
7. The Red Cross is an _ that helps people all over the world.
8. There are some exciting new _ in music.
9. He tried to _ a conversation with the beautiful woman.
10. He has _ in his doctor.
11. The _ turned the test paper blue.
12. George thought he was one of the generous creatures alive: and that he was
making a _ sacrifice in marrying this young creature.
13. I didn't _ him without hair.
10 Choose the correct form of the verb.
1 If everything (go) smoothly, the contract could have been extended for up to three years.
2 If we (not be able) to settle the exchange problem, we would fail.
3 If our price (run) below, your promotion can appeal to people's desire to
4 The payment (send) by the end of the week
5 The delivery (receive) last week
6 The teacher asked us (open) the window.
7 Ben asked me if I (take) the exam next year.
8 I explained that we already (try) that one.
9 A new stadium (build) near us now.
10 We did not realize what (go on).
11 Translate the sentences.
1 If they hadn't expanded so quickly, they would have been able to cope with
the volume of orders.
2 If the software was not tested and the system would broke down.
3 A room has been reserved for you at the hotel.
4 No capital is required if your company is well known.
5 He did not explain me why they would not come.