In all societies


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Английский. In all societies.


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I. Прочитайте текст, письменно переведите абзац В.
A. 1. In all societies, relations between people are regulated by laws. 2. Some of them are customs — that is, informal rules of social and moral behaviour. 3. Some are rules we accept if we belong to particular social institutions, such as religious, educational and cultural groups. 4. And some are laws made by nations and enforced against all citizens.
B. 5. Customs need not be made by governments, and they need not be written down. 6. We learn how to behave in society through the instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, and our experiences in dealing with strangers. 7. Sometimes we can break these rules without suffering any penalty. 8. But if we continually break the rules, or break a very important one, other members of society may ridicule us, criticize us, act violently toward us or refuse to have anything to do with us. 9. The ways in which people talk, eat and drink, work and relax together are usually guided by many such informal rules which have very little to do with laws created by governments.
С. 10. The rules of social institutions are more formal than customs carrying penalties for those who break them. 11. They are not enforceable by any political authority. 12. Sports clubs, for example, often have detailed rules for their members. 13. But if a member breaks a rule and refuses to accept any punishment, the club may have no power other than to ask him or her to leave the club.

II. Выберите формы глаголов to be, to have или оборот there is/are. Переведите предложения на родной язык.
is   are   shall be   have   has   had  there is   there are   there was
1. ... a lot of fee-paying groups at our Faculty.
2. We ... extra-mural students.
3. Special subjects ... important for our future work.
4. They ... a good library at home.
5. ... a lecture on Administrative Law today.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, переводя местоимения в скобках на английский язык. Переведите предложения на родной язык.
1. There is a very old tree in this street. (Оно) remembers Mitskewich.
2. Is there (кто-нибудь) in the room? Yes, there are (несколько) people.
3. In the morning I met (его) and (его) brother.
4. They took (свои) books.
5. Take the toys and give (их) to the children.

IV. Переведите следующие прилагательные на английский язык:
самый старый  жарче  такой же больной, как и
ближе         чем больше, тем лучше самый важный
лучший      самый плохой день      менее значительный

V. Выберите сказуемое в нужном времени. Переведите предложения на родной язык.
1. We (study, are studying) one foreign language.
2. They (work, are working) at this text now.
3. You (will have, will be having) a lecture at this time tomorrow.
4. Yesterday he (had, was having) three lectures.
5. He (went, was going) home when I met him.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменяя инфинитивы в скобках глаголами в нужном времени и залоге. Переведите предложения на родной язык.
1. The law on land (to adopt) last year.
2. Parliament (to adopt) a lot of important laws.
3. A new theatre (to build) in Grodno some years ago.
4. They (to build) houses, offices, factories.
5. He (to apply) to University next year.
VII. Выпишите из текста сказуемые в страдательном залоге. Дайте варианты их перевода.

VIII.  Переведите предложения на английский язык, обращая внимание на времена сказуемых.
1. Они уже сдали экзамены.
2. Они сдавали этот экзамен вчера.
3. Они сдадут этот экзамен к вечеру.
4. Когда вошел декан, студенты сдавали экзамен.
5. Они сдают экзамен уже три часа.

IX. Напишите следующие предложения в косвенной речи, обращая внимание на правило согласования времен.
«Do you want to become a lawyer?»
«When did you enter Grodno University?»
«When will you graduate from University?»
«Why do you want to be a lawyer?»

X.  Поставьте вопросы ко всем членам данного предложения (5 вопросов):
Public laws establish the authority of the government.

XI. Выберите соответствующую форму причастия.
1. The article которая переводится by the students deals with the British legal systems.
(translated,   being translated,   translating)
2. Применив this device we got good results.
(being used,   having been used,   having used)
3. После того как статья была прочитана, the article was discussed at the lesson.
(reading,   read,   having been read)

XII. Выберите и переведите на родной язык предложения:
A. с независимым причастным оборотом.
1. When the article is ready, I'll show it to you.
2. My friend helps me with my English, I helping him with Theory of State and Law.
3. When going to the university, I met my friends.
B. с причастием II.
1. If asked to do it again, he will not repeat his former mistakes.
2. Yesterday we discussed a very important problem.
3. The problems discussed at the seminar were very important.