Перевод текста с английского на русский
Чтобы правильно переводить текст с английского на русский язык, необходимы знания в разных областях. Если вы переводите технический текст, то предполагается, что вы знакомы с техническими вопросами.
Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
А 1. It has been found necessary in many countries to control or regulate national economic conditions.
2. India makes clear distinction between the public and private sectors.
3. Economics is constantly developing.
4. The State provides all the services, which the citizens require.
5. In 1962 an official planning body was set up by the government to guide national economic policies.
Б 1. Such systems are sometimes called "mixed economies".
2. The word "capital" is often used to describe financial backing.
3. People who provide labour services are paid wages and salaries.
4. Economics is referred to as the science studying such everyday problems as inflation, unemployment, and international trade.
2. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните Participle I, Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, будет ли оно определением, обстоятельством или составной частью глагола-сказуемого. Предложение переведите.
1. India has had a number of plans guided by the government.
2. If declared bankrupt, a person may not obtain any credit.
3. Britain is producing a lot of goods to the national market.
4. The under-developed countries of the world are inevitably interested in control and long term plans guided by the government.
5. It is not possible to plan ahead with any certainty even in a rigidly controlled economy, because natural disaster, political changes and other factors can affect
3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол и его эквивалент.
1. Any government must set up an official planning body to guide national economic policies.
2. Many countries, even such strongholds of free enterprise as the USA, had to control or regulate national economic conditions.
3. Natural disasters, political changes and other factors can affect the general plan in unexpected ways.
4. There are different problems that economics has to solve.
5. The national economy must be planned ahead over years.
4. Переведите следующий текст письменно.
It has been found necessary in many countries, even such dedicated strongholds of free enterprise as the USA, to control or regulate national economic conditions. The under-developed countries of the world are inevitably interested in control and long term plans guided by the government. India has had a number of such plans. India makes clear distinction between the public and private sectors. Systems of this type are sometimes called "mixed economies".
Britain nowadays has a mixed economy. In the public sector of Britain economic life are the nationalized industries like coal and steel, British Rail and BOAC. In the private sector are the majority of the nation's industries, both large and small, from giants like ICI and BP to small family businesses. In 1962 the government set up an official planning body to guide national economic policies. This body is known as the National Economic Development Council (NEDC). The members of the NEDC are representatives of the employers' federations, and the Trades Union Congress, together with members of the government, eminent industrialists and leading economists.
Tie main function of the NEDC is planning national production and setting up production targets. It is however a very difficult matter to plan ahead in a mixed economy. It is not possible to plan ahead with any certainty even in a rigidly controlled economy, because natural disasters, political changes and other factors can affect the general plan in unexpected ways.
Контрольное задание 3
Перепишите предложения, определите в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The science of economics is based upon the facts of our everyday lives.
2. The serfs working time was divided into necessary and surplus time.
3. The plan hasn’t been at all well thought out by the leader.
4. Many of these products will be exported to the Pacific countries, especially Japan and West of the US.
5. This notice must be altered.
2. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их, учитывая различные значения слов it, that, since, one, for, as.
1. He made it clear that the question should not be discussed now.
2. It was on Saturday that he rang me up.
3. One mustn't read in bed.
4. This notebook is too thin, I need a thicker one.
5. He was in prison for 2 years. Since that time he became interested in pigeons.
6. It is a long time since I had a good meal.
3. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов to do, to be, to have. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The students will have to stay after classes.
2. Molly had a child in her arms.
3. I have never been to Paris.
4. You'd better have your car painted.
5. I am to make a report at our next meeting.
6. John was reading when we came.
7. They will be sent on business trip soon.
8. I wasn't at the lecture last Monday.
9. Don't allow the children to play in the street.
10. Did you buy flowers?
4. Перепишите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание правила согласования времен и бессоюзное подчинение. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. They said that while they were bathing they saw someone examining their cloths.
2. He said he thought my electric iron was unsafe and advised me to have it seen to.
3. I told her to stop making a fuss about nothing and said she was lucky to have got a seat at all.
4. He said I mustn't mind if the first one wasn't very good.
5. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. We were too tired to continue our way.
2. It is difficult to translate such texts.
3. His wish was to be given this work.
4. Nick was the last to come to the finish.
5. Is to climb a high mountain an easy or a difficult task?
6. Прочтите и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2й абзац.
What is meant by the production of material wealth? It’s a process including human labour, the means of labour and the objects of labour. The latter two form production means. But production means cannot produce. The finest technical equipment is lifeless without people using it. Thus the decisive factor in any production is man himself and his labour.
Выпишите английские предложения, несущие основную мысль.
Составьте 4 вопроса к тексту и ответьте на них.
In order to live people must have food, clothes, dwellings, tools and instruments. To have these people must produce them, so they must work to produce the material wealth.
Контрольное задание 4
1. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно Complex Object и Complex Subject часто соответствуют придаточным предложениям.
1. This is the contract to be signed first of all.
2. They found the advertising campaign to have worked very well.
3. The goods seemed to be of excellent quality.
4. Supply is said to be elastic when it is regulated according to market prices.
5. The entrepreneur wants the wage worker to be skilled and to acquire qualifications on his own expenses.
6. We have no intention to order these goods.
7. Established, at the end of the 14th century in Italy and in the 16th century in other countries, the first large enterprises were capitalist manufactories.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные ниже предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборотов.
1. Circulating capital is spent on the purchase of labor power.
2. An economy producing goods for direct consumption and not for sale is called a natural economy.
3. The value of the commodity manufactured has two components.
4. Having been promoted the goods sold well.
5. The goods having been promoted, the sales increased.
6. The company flourished, with a new image found.
7. A meeting ground having been reached, both parties were satisfied.
3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности перевода герундия на русский язык.
1. We are greatly interested in buying computers and office equipment.
2. Overproduction resulted in decreasing the price.
3. The Letter of Credit was made valid by having been extended for another term.
4. Labor spent on finishing, transporting and packaging commodities adds a new value to the already existing one.
5. Studying the laws governing goods production and distribution is a subject matter of economics.
4. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения.
1. If prices fall the manufacturers will reduce the production.
2. If prices fell the production would be reduced.
3. If business had been going well the company would have survived.
4. Were there an excess of these goods, however, the individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants.
5. When planning his expenditures, he must therefore accept these fixed prices. Relative demand would go down, then.
5. Прочитайте текст и устно переведите 3й абзац. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1й и 2й абзацы.
In most economic systems, the prices of the majority of goods and services do not change over short periods of time. In some systems it is of course possible for an individual to bargain over prices, because they are not fixed in advance. In general terms, however, the individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants. When planning his expenditure, he must therefore accept these fixed prices. He must also pay the same fixed price no matter how many units he buys. A consumer will go on buying bananas for as long as he continues to be satisfied. If he buys more, he shows that his satisfaction is still greater than his dislike of losing money. With each successive purchase, however, his satisfaction compensates less for the loss of money.
A point in time comes when the financial sacrifice is greater than the satisfaction of eating bananas. The consumer will therefore stop buying bananas at the current price. The bananas are unchanged; they are no better or worse than before. Their marginal utility to the consumer has, however, changed. If the price had been higher, he might have bought fewer bananas; if the price had been lower, he might have bought more.
6. Выпишите предложения, которые соответствуют содержанию текстов урока.
1. When people offer money for particular goods, they indicate that a demand exists.
3. People do not usually have everything they want.
4. Basic needs come before luxuries.
Контрольное задание 5
Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них тип условного предложения и переведите на русский язык.
1. If it is a free market, the competition takes place among sellers of the same commodity.
2. If you fired this bookkeeper, you would be very sorry.
3. If you had put services into effect quickly, you would not have failed.
4. If you start your own business you need capital.
5. If we examine the monetary history of Greece and Rome, we'll find a very complex manipulation of standards and currency.
Задание 2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие конструкции с причастиями, герундием и инфинитивом.
1. This kind of business seemed to be successful.
2. The Island of Britain is known to have been revealed to the Roman world by Julius Caesar in the year 55 ВС
3. The manager made his employees start productive work.
4. We consider such a risk to have been justified.
5. In the American economic system the type and quality of goods produced are determined largely through the interaction of supply and demand.
6. With the sphere of culture still remaining profitable, the aim of the "cultural" capitalist is to cut down the cost of production to a minimum.
7. Selling commodities on foreign markets entrepreneurs are able to expand production and thereby to increase profit.
8. The amount of money to be paid included the cost of packing.
9. The planning process requires a large bureaucracy with the resulting problem of securing administrative efficiency faced by any large organization.
10. The government can influence the money supply by buying and selling its own securities.
Задание 3. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие усилительные (эмфатические) конструкции.
1. Workers do restore the physical strength because they have all the vital necessities needed.
2. It is abstract labour that forms the value of a commodity.
3. It is only the value of the workers' labour that they are paid for.
4. It is under private ownership of the production means when the law of value results in the emergence of capitalist relations.
5. I believe he does know the subject well.
Задание 4. Выпишите из текста 5 (В) предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое употребляется в страдательном залоге, и переведите их.
Labour is any work performed for an employer at a negotiated rate while profit is the surplus which accumulates as a result of productive work. The employer obtains this surplus after he pays the necessary expense of his business and the wages of his employees. He may be required to share the surplus with others who have provided the capital with which he started his business.
Most businesses need capital in order to start productive work, and the capital pays for the accommodation, machinery and other items which the business needs.
There is always an element of risk in providing capital and starting a business. The business may not be successful. The employees of the business do not bear this risk, but the employers and the providers of capital do bear it. If the business is successful, the risk has been justified and the invested capital earns part of the profits as a return on the investment.
The capital which people provide to help new business is an accumulation of previous surpluses on previous business activities. In this way the past is used to finance the future. Such capital is accumulated by a deliberate policy of saving surpluses. This policy may be personal, or it may be collective. As such, it is common to many economic systems. A certain part of the profit is “ploughed back” into the system in order to create capital.
In general, capital can be defined as (1) a factor of production (for example, machinery or cash); (2) the assets possessed by a person, a company or a nation. Land, houses and shares in a business are capital. All railways, docks, airports and state funds of money are part of the nation’s capital.
1. He may be required to share the surplus with others who have provided the capital with which he started his business.
2. If the business is successful, the risk has been justified and the invested capital earns part of the profits as a return on the investment.
3. In this way the past is used to finance the future.
4. Such capital is accumulated by a deliberate policy of saving surpluses.
5. In general, capital can be defined as (1) a factor of production (for example, machinery or cash); (2) the assets possessed by a person, a company or a nation.
6. A certain part of the profit is “ploughed back” into the system in order to create capital.
Задание 5. Из 10 строк текста 5(с) выпишите все сказуемые и укажите их видо-временные формы (залог, время).
The term market, as used by economists, is an extension of the ancient idea of a market as a place where people gather to buy and sell goods. In those days part of a town was kept as a market, and people would travel long distances on special market-days in order to buy and sell various commodities. Today, markets such as the world sugar market, the gold market and the cotton market do not need to have any fixed geographical location. Such a market is simply a set of conditions permitting buyers and sellers to work together.
In a free market, competition takes place among sellers of the same commodity, and among those who wish to buy that commodity.
Задание 6. Прочтите и устно переведите 1й и 2й абзацы. Перепишите и письменно 3 абзац.
The Open Market
In a free market, competition takes place among sellers in order to sell their commodities at the best possible price, and among buyers in order to obtain what they want at a price, which suits them. Such competition influences prices. Changes in supply and demand have their effects, and it is not surprising that considerable fluctuations in price can take place over periods of weeks and months.
Контрольное задание 6
1. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их на русский язык. При переводе обратите внимание на место предлога в русском языке.
l. The new discovery is being much spoken about.
2. At present tests are usually relied on to supply the data.
3. Many materials now commonly used were not even thought of thirty years ago.
4. This simple rule is followed by the majority of scientists.
5. The use of metals is affected by a number of factors.
6. The proposal will be dealt with later.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, выбирая русские глаголы с дополнением без предлога.
1. The working method of science may be dealt in several ways.
2. The exceptions are not easily accounted for.
3. Some urgent problems have been touched upon here.
3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующий текст. Обратите внимание на место Participle II в качестве определения и способы его перевода.
Overtime hours are the hours worked in excess of the standard number of hours of week laid down in the conditions of employment. Hourly-paid employees are normally paid at a higher rate per hour for overtime than for standard hours, and it is therefore in their interests to get the number of standard hours reduced. The amount of overtime worked fluctuates in response to movements in aggregate demand. From 1968 to 1975 the standard number of hours worked per week in the UK fell by about 1 per cent to just under forty hours, whereas the number of hours actually worked per week has fallen by 5 per cent to a little over forty-two.
4. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выделите в них придаточные предложения, подчеркните их и определите тип. Предложения переведите.
1. Modern man lives in a crowded world with the benefits and inconveniences large crowds imply.
2. People find it profitable to trade the things they possess in overabundance for the things they want more urgently.
3. A student takes into consideration the market potential for the training he chooses to acquire.
4. Lowell died in 1817, but by this time the industry he had founded was firmly established.
5. You are deeply involved in economics whether you have taken a course in it or not. Every time you buy a can of beans or collect a paycheck or put $20 in your savings account, you affect not only your own economic life, but also the lives of others.
6. Some people say American great cities are monuments of progress; others say they are symptoms of social disease.
7. The value of the dollar is determined by how much it will buy. Money is as "good" as the amount of food, electricity, clothing, etc', you can get in exchange for it.
5. Перепишите и переведите следующие предложения, обратив внимание на порядок слов в придаточных предложениях.
1. The movement would have remained ineffective, had it not found an army in the recently developed class of industrial workmen.
2. Had the antifascist, antiwar forces been able at that time to unite, World War 11 could have been prevented; fifty million would not have had to die.
3. Only if we bear the future in mind, will we be able to guide and correctly invest our energies at the present time". (P. Kapitsa)
6. Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каком значении употребляются в них глаголы should / would.
1. In principle, the price increases should eliminate the excess demand.
2. The idea that we should consume less, in order to save and invest more was much criticized.
3. The bulk of company's reserves would be invested in the business.
4. An industry with low concentration would be one, which contained a hundred firms each of approximately the same size.
5. The firm's demand for labour would be determined by a complex of factors.
6. To judge by these factors would be risky.
7. It would be wrong to think that the intellectual capacities of an individual man are inexhaustible.
7. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык приводимый ниже текст.
Who Suffers Or Benefits From Inflation?
Inflation affects people differently: some suffer, while others benefit. Those most likely to suffer from inflation arepeople living on relatively fixed incomes, savers, lenders and business.
During periods of inflation the cost of living increases. Therefore it is
necessary to earn more just to maintain your present living standard. How much of an increase is necessary? At least as much as the rate of inflation.
Some people put their money into savings accounts or bonds that guarantee a fixed rate of returns (usually called "interest"). Unless the rate of return is at least as high as the inflation rate, the money returned to a saver will purchase less than the sum he or she set aside. Those who lend money are in the same position as those who save.
Business is hurt by inflation because it causes uncertainty and makes it hard for managers to predict future costs. Besides, it raises production cost.
Those who can easily increase their incomes, borrowers and government, can benefit from inflation.
Certain professions, industries and labour groups find it easier to increase prices and wages during periods of inflation than at other times. A case in point is the retail jewelry trade. During periods of inflation the price of jewelry has generally increased faster than the cost of living. The result has been higher profit margins for jewelers.