Justice and Courts in the United Kingdom


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Justice and Courts in the United Kingdom. Контрольная.


Перевести юридический текст с английского

Юридические тексты переводит без особых проблем тот, кто хорошо знает юридическую сферу. Необходимо также знать юридическую лексику.


Задания для самостоятельной работы.
1. Замените действительный залог страдательным и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) The audience enjoyed the concert very much.
2) The little boy ate the cake.
3) The teacher corrects our exercises at home.
4) They started a dancing class last week.
5) Everybody will see this film soon.
6) The teacher returned our written works to us.
7) Mr. Parker will leave the tickets at the box-office.
8) The students translate texts during English lessons.

2. Прочитайте и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1) Sochi Festivals of Songs are attended by a lot of people.
2) I heard the game was lost by the Dynamo team yesterday.
3) The new skyscraper is being made of glass and steel.
4) The factory was still being built, when we came to live there.
5) His last book has just been published.
6) I wonder why he is always laughed at.
7) Those papers haven't been looked through yet.
8) It is expected that they will do everything possible to help him.

3. Переведите подчеркнутые глаголы, выбрав правильную формуиз предложенных после каждого предложения вариантов.
1. Письмобылопослановчера.
а) is sent в) was sent c) had been sent
2. Когда вошел директор, диктант писался учениками.
а) was written в) was being written c) were being written
3. Обед уже был приготовлен, когда я пришел.
а) had been cooked в) has been cooked c) had cooked
4. Упражнение будут проверять завтра на уроке.
а) will be tested в) will have been tested c) is being tested

4. Переведите подчеркнутые глаголы, выбрав правильную формуиз предложенных после каждого предложения вариантов.
1. Письмобылопослановчера.
а) is sent в) was sent c) had been sent
2. Когда вошел директор, диктант писался учениками.
а) was written в) was being written c) were being written
3. Обед уже был приготовлен, когда я пришел.
а) had been cooked в) has been cooked c) had cooked
4. Упражнение будут проверять завтра на уроке.
а) will be tested в) will have been tested c) is being tested

5. Переведите следующие предложения и определите функцию и форму инфинитива
1) To walk in bad weather is not pleasant.
2) Our task is to master English.
3)I come here to help you.
4)Some students of our Institute have been sent abroad to study English.
5)This is a good place to work in.
6)We knew the test to have been made.
7)They hope to be sent to the conference.
8)The work to be done here will take much time.

6. Переведите следующие предложения и определите функцию причастия:
1) He is looking for the book which he lost.
2)The street leading to our house is very wide.
3) Having read the article I do not need it any longer.
4) Cities and towns destroyed during the war, were built anew.
5) Having been built two centuries ago, the house has no lift.
6) It was clear that he had given us the wrong address.
7) He speaks like a man having his opinion of every thing.
8) Walking in the park, he met his old friend.
9) The cars now being produced at out plants are very good.

7. Переведите следующие предложения и определите функцию герундия:
1) Swimming in bad weather is not pleasant.
2) We discussed opening a new business.
3) There stands a reading lamp on the table.
4) Instead of going home he went to the movies.
5) I shall never forget taking that examination.
6) There are several ways of producing electricity.
7) On coming home I took a bath.
8) Thank you for coming.
9) Seeing and believing are different things.

8. Определите являются ли выделенные слова – причастием, отглагольным существительным или герундием.
1) Knowing English well he translated the article without a dictionary.
2) He took part in the sittings .
3) She is looking at the woman sitting at the window.
4) After saying this he left the room.
5) Have you any reason for saying such things?
6) The reading of this book took two hours.
7) He sat in the arm-chair reading a newspaper.
8) My little son shows his enjoyment by crying.

9. Переведите предложения с субъектным инфинитивным оборотом, обращая внимание на формы инфинитива:
A. 1) Tsiolkovsky is known to have developed the theory of rocket flying.
2) The experiment was supposed to have been completed.
3) Electric current is known to flow in metal parts.
4) The solution of this problem is said not to be easy.
5) The building is reported to have been damaged by fire.
B. 1) The match proved to be final.
2) The new approach to the problem appears to be the most satisfactory.
3) The laser beam seems to have almost unlimited industrial possibilities.
4) She didn’t seem to have heard what I said.
5) He turned out to be a good chess-player.
C. 1) The application of this device is certain to give better results.
1) He is likely to be given this work.
2) This important problem is sure to be settled very soon.
3) We are not likely to meet often.
4) We are sure to learn of it.
D. 1) They were ordered to leave the hall.
2) The singer was asked to repeat the song.
3) He was made to put on his coat.
4) She was allowed to walk Sunday afternoons.
5) The child was forced to drink some of the medicine.

10. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык:
1) Inspecting the motor, the engineer made some valuable remarks.
2) Having done a number of operations, the machine stopped automatically.
3) Translating the article, the student used some dictionaries.
4) After the teacher had explained the new grammar rule, he asked the students to do some written exercises.
5) Having received your message, I answered it at once.
6) When the engineer tested the engine, he applied new methods.

11. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на независимый причастный оборот:
1) It being warm, the children went for a walk.
2) The students wrote their English test-paper, each doing his variant.
3) My father being very ill, I had to send for the doctor.
4) The text was not difficult, many words having been learned before.
5) It being very late, we had to return home.
6) There being no more questions to be discussed at the meeting, the chairman declared it closed.
7) The concert was followed by a dance, many people staying for it.
8) The weather permitting, we shall start tomorrow.

12. Определитетиппридаточногопредложения.
1. She is reading a newspaper which I advised her to buy. 2. I will cook the dinner while you are shopping. 3. If the weather is rainy tomorrow we will have to stay in town. 4. Do you remember the time when we were happy together? 5. The teacher you want to speak to is out now. 6. The place where I was born is a big city now. 7. What will you do when you are 18? 8. What will you do after you graduate from the University.

13. Употребите нужную форму сослагательного наклонения вглавном предложении.
1. If she had known that you were ill she ____ to see you.
a) would come b) will come c) would have come
2. If I knew that it was slippery I ____.
a) didn’t drive b) wouldn’t have driven c) wouldn’t drive
3. If you had followed the instructions you ____ a bad mark.
a) wouldn’t get b) won’t get c) wouldn’t have got
4. If I had got up early I ____ the bus.
a) would catch b) would have caught c) caught
14. Переведите предложения на русский язык и определитетип условного предложения.
1. If you learn the words, you will write the test well. 2. If you worked better, you would get a higher salary. 3. If he got seriously ill, I would be very sorry. 4. Will you tell him the truth, if he asks you? 5. If he were at home he would answer the phone. 6. My favourite team wouldn’t have lost the last game, if they had trained more. 7. If I were you I wouldn’t find fault with him. 8. If I had had more time, I would have made a larger cake.
15. Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст.
Justice and Courts in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom judiciary is in entirely independent of the Government. There is no minister of justice. The Lord Chancellor is the head of the judiciary. Although the United Kingdom is a unitary state, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own legal systems and law courts, and considerable differences remain in law, organization and practice. However, a large volume of modern legislation applies through the United Kingdom.
The main sources of law are legislation, common law and European Community law.
Legislation consists of Acts of Parliament, orders (rules and regulations made by ministers under the authority of an Acts of Parliament) and by laws, made by local government or other authorities exercising powers conferred by Parliament.
Common law, the ancient law of the land deduced from customs and interpreted in court cases by the judges, has never been precisely defined or codified but forms the basis of the law.
European Community Law is confined mainly to economic and social matters.
The legal system of the United Kingdom distinguishes between criminal and civil law. The criminal law is concerned with wrongful acts harmful to the community. The civil law is concerned with individuals' rights, duties and obligations towards one another.
British criminal justice comprises four stages:
1 – making laws which define illegal actions;
2 – preventing crime and enforcing the law – largely matters for the police;
3 – determining in the courts the guilt or innocence of the people accused of crimes and sentencing the guilty;
4 – dealing with convicted offenders.
The criminal law is government-sponsored, but there is usually consultation between government departments and the legal profession, the police, probation and prison services and voluntary bodies.
Crime statistics are published annually and further information about crime trends is contained in the annual reports of Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Constabulary.
A wide range of research into criminal and social policies is carried out in-university departments, much of it financed by the Government. The principal university criminological research establishment is the Institute of Criminology at Cambridge.
The civil law of England, Wales and Northern Ireland is subdivided into: family law, the law of property, the law of contract and the law of torts.
Other branches of the civil law include constitutional and administrative, industrial, maritime laws. Scottish civil law has its own, often analogous branches.
There are Magistrates' Courts and the Crown Courts in Britain. The courts of the United Kingdom are the Queen's Courts since the Crown is the historic source of all judicial power. The Queen, acting on the advice of ministers, is responsible for all appointments to the judiciary.
Magistrates' courts deal with nearly all less criminal cases and conduct preliminary investigations into offences. Magistrates are sitting in courts without a jury.
The Crown Courts take all criminal work above level of Magistrates's courts. The Crown Court deals with trials of more serious criminal cases and the trials are held before a jury. A jury is completely independent of the judiciary.
16. Ответьтенавопросы.
1. Is the United Kingdom judiciary independent of the Government?
2. What are the main sources of law?
3. What is legislation?
4. What is common law?
5. What is European Community law?
6. What is criminal law?
7. What is the civil law concerned with?
8. What stages does British criminal justice comprise?
9. Whom is the criminal law sponsored by?
10. What University carries out criminological researches?
11. What branches is the civil law subdivided into?
12. What courts do you know in the United Kingdom?
13. What cases do Magistrates' courts deal with?
14. Are magistrates sitting in courts with a jury?
15. Does the Crown Court deal with more serious criminal cases?
16.Are the trials of the Crown Court held before a jury?
17. Is a jury dependent or completely independent of the judiciary?
17. Закончите предложения, выбрав соответствующее по cмыслу определение.
1. The criminal law deals with ....
a) individuals' rights and obligations.
b) serious criminal cases.
2. The civil law is concerned with ....
a) individuals' rights and obligations.
b) serious criminal cases.
3. Magistrates's Courts deal with ....
a) preliminary investigations and less criminal cases (without a jury).
b) trials of more serious criminal cases (and before a jury).
4. The Crown Courts deal with ....
a) preliminary investigations and less criminal cases (without a jury).
b) trials of more serious criminal cases (and before a jury).
Выполните тест.
1. Выберите нужное:
Mary … inavillage.
1) live
2) is living
3) lives
4) are living
2. Выберитенужное:
The students … a lecture at the moment.
1) attend
2) are attending
3) have been attending
4) have attending
3. Выберите нужное:
I … read any books by this writer, yet.
1) haven’t
2) didn’t
3) hadn’t
4) don’t
4. Выберите нужное:
What shall I do? I … my passport.
1) lost
2) have lost
3) had lost
4) has lost
5. Выберите нужное:
St. Paul’s Cathedral … destroyed in the Great Fire in London.
1) is
2) has
3) had been
4) was
6. Выберите нужное:
We … that we should get there by bus.
1) say
2) said
3) says
4) had said
7. Выберите нужное:
I’m hungry. I … concentrate on the quiz.
1) mustn’t
2) needn’t
3) can’t
4) shouldn’t
8. Выберите нужное:
When I got home, I found that someone … my bedroom window.
1) broke
2) has broken
3) had broken
4) have broken
9. Выберите нужное:
I hear that your exams are next week. You … be studying very hard at the moment.
1) must
2) may
3) should
4) can
10. Выберите нужное:
… many shops near your house?
1) Are
2) Is there
3) Are there
4) Was there
11. Выберите нужное:
Please give me … interesting to read.
1) anything
2) everything
3) nothing
4) something
12. Выберите нужное:
Excuse me, is it your book? No, it’s … .
1) him
2) his
3) her
4) their
13. Выберите нужное:
Everest is … mountain in the world.
1) higher
2) the highest
3) a high
4) the most high
14. Выберите нужное:
She speaks … English.
1) perfectly
2) perfect
3) more perfect
4) most perfect
15. Выберите нужное:
Can you play … the guitar?
1) on
2) at
3) –
4) in
16. Выберите нужное:
Helen likes … in the sun for hours.
1) coming
2) during
3) sitting
4) nothing
17. Выберите нужное:
He could not do his homework … help.
1) with
2) without
3) instead of
4) because of
18. Закончите вопрос:
The English people often talk about the weather, … they?
1) didn’t
2) don’t
3) aren’t
4) do
19. Выберите правильный вопрос к подчеркнутому:
They learn German.
1) What language they learn?
2) What language did they learn?
3) What language do they learn?
4) What language learn they?
20. Выберите правильный вопрос к предложению:
The car belongs to Michael.
1) Does the car belongs to Michael?
2) Do the car belongs to Michael?
3) Does the car belong to Michael? 4)Belongs the car to Michael?
21. Выберите нужное:
Do you often … TV?
1) see
2) look
3) watch
4) observe
22. Выберите нужное:
I … autumn. I hate rains.
1) unlike
2) like
3) disagree
4) dislike
23. Выберите нужное:
Take … of the children, please!
1) place
2) notice
3) care
4) part
24. Выберите нужное:
It was difficult to believe that autumn had … begun.
1) almost
2) always
3) already
4) also

25. Выберите нужное:
“Low” is opposite of “…”.
1) hight
2) hate
3) hay
4) high
26. Выберите нужное:
… louder. We can’t hear you.
1) Talk
2) Tell
3) Speak
4) Say
27. Выберите нужное:
The … was thick. Nothing was seen.
1) snow
2) rain
3) wind
4) fog
28. Выберите нужное:
Spell and translate the … words.
1) coming
2) approaching
3) going
4) following
29. Выберите нужное:
He … a very interesting report at the last conference.
1) did
2) accomplished
3) performed
4) made
30. Выберите нужное:
Russia is our … .
1) earth
2) land
3) soil 4) ground